2014 AIME II Problems/Problem 14

Revision as of 23:55, 27 October 2017 by Kikipet (talk | contribs) (Diagram)

Problem

In $\triangle{ABC}, AB=10, \angle{A}=30^\circ$ , and $\angle{C=45^\circ}$. Let $H, D,$ and $M$ be points on the line $BC$ such that $AH\perp{BC}$, $\angle{BAD}=\angle{CAD}$, and $BM=CM$. Point $N$ is the midpoint of the segment $HM$, and point $P$ is on ray $AD$ such that $PN\perp{BC}$. Then $AP^2=\dfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Diagram

[asy] unitsize(20); pair A = MP("A",(-5sqrt(3),0)), B = MP("B",(0,5),N), C = MP("C",(5,0)), M = D(MP("M",0.5(B+C),NE)), D = MP("D",IP(L(A,incenter(A,B,C),0,2),B--C),N), H = MP("H",foot(A,B,C),N), N = MP("N",0.5(H+M),NE), P = MP("P",IP(A--D,L(N,N-(1,1),0,10))); D(A--B--C--cycle); D(B--H--A,blue+dashed); D(A--D); D(P--N); markscalefactor = 0.05; D(rightanglemark(A,H,B)); D(rightanglemark(P,N,D)); MP("10",0.5(A+B)-(-0.1,0.1),NW); [/asy]

Solution

As we can see,


$M$ is the midpoint of $BC$ and $N$ is the midpoint of $HM$


$AHC$ is a $45-45-90$ triangle, so $\angle{HAB}=15^\circ$.


$AHD$ is $30-60-90$ triangle.


$AH$ and $PN$ are parallel lines so $PND$ is $30-60-90$ triangle also.


Then if we use those informations we get $AD=2HD$ and


$PD=2ND$ and $AP=AD-PD=2HD-2ND=2HN$ or $AP=2HN=HM$


Now we know that $HM=AP$, we can find for $HM$ which is simpler to find.


We can use point $B$ to split it up as $HM=HB+BM$,


We can chase those lengths and we would get


$AB=10$, so $OB=5$, so $BC=5\sqrt{2}$, so $BM=\dfrac{1}{2} \cdot BC=\dfrac{5\sqrt{2}}{2}$


We can also use Law of Sines:

\[\frac{BC}{AB}=\frac{\sin\angle A}{\sin\angle C}\] \[\frac{BC}{10}=\frac{\frac{1}{2}}{\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}}\implies BC=5\sqrt{2}\]

Then using right triangle $AHB$, we have $HB=10 \sin 15^\circ$


So $HB=10 \sin 15^\circ=\dfrac{5(\sqrt{6}-\sqrt{2})}{2}$.


And we know that $AP = HM = HB + BM = \frac{5(\sqrt6-\sqrt2)}{2} + \frac{5\sqrt2}{2} = \frac{5\sqrt6}{2}$.


Finally if we calculate $(AP)^2$.


$(AP)^2=\dfrac{150}{4}=\dfrac{75}{2}$. So our final answer is $75+2=77$.


$m+n=\boxed{077}$


Thank you.


-Gamjawon

Solution 2. Here's a solution that doesn't need $\sin 15^\circ$.

As above, get to $AP=HM$. As in the figure, let $O$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $B$ to $AC$. Then $BCO$ is a 45-45-90 triangle, and $ABO$ is a 30-60-90 triangle. So $BO=5$ and $AO=5\sqrt{3}$; also, $CO=5$, $BC=5\sqrt2$, and $MC=\dfrac{BC}{2}=5\dfrac{\sqrt2}{2}$. But $MO$ and $AH$ are parallel, both being orthogonal to $BC$. Therefore $MH:AO=MC:CO$, or $MH=\dfrac{5\sqrt3}{\sqrt2}$, and we're done.

See also

2014 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 13
Followed by
Problem 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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