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# 2014 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 16

## Problem

In rectangle $ABCD$, $AB=1$, $BC=2$, and points $E$, $F$, and $G$ are midpoints of $\overline{BC}$, $\overline{CD}$, and $\overline{AD}$, respectively. Point $H$ is the midpoint of $\overline{GE}$. What is the area of the shaded region?

$[asy] import graph; size(9cm); pen dps = fontsize(10); defaultpen(dps); pair D = (0,0); pair F = (1/2,0); pair C = (1,0); pair G = (0,1); pair E = (1,1); pair A = (0,2); pair B = (1,2); pair H = (1/2,1); // do not look pair X = (1/3,2/3); pair Y = (2/3,2/3); draw(A--B--C--D--cycle); draw(G--E); draw(A--F--B); draw(D--H--C); filldraw(H--X--F--Y--cycle,grey); label("A",A,NW); label("B",B,NE); label("C",C,SE); label("D",D,SW); label("E",E,E); label("F",F,S); label("G",G,W); label("H",H,N); label("\frac12",(0.25,0),S); label("\frac12",(0.75,0),S); label("1",(1,0.5),E); label("1",(1,1.5),E); [/asy]$

$\textbf{(A)}\ \dfrac1{12}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt3}{18}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt2}{12}\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt3}{12}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac16$

## Solution 1

Denote $D=(0,0)$. Then $A= (0,2), F = \left(\frac12,0\right), H = \left(\frac12,1\right)$. Let the intersection of $AF$ and $DH$ be $X$, and the intersection of $BF$ and $CH$ be $Y$. Then we want to find the coordinates of $X$ so we can find $XY$. From our points, the slope of $AF$ is $\bigg(\dfrac{-2}{\tfrac12}\bigg) = -4$, and its $y$-intercept is just $2$. Thus the equation for $AF$ is $y = -4x + 2$. We can also quickly find that the equation of $DH$ is $y = 2x$. Setting the equations equal, we have $2x = -4x +2 \implies x = \frac13$. Because of symmetry, we can see that the distance from $Y$ to $BC$ is also $\frac13$, so $XY = 1 - 2 \cdot \frac13 = \frac13$. Now the area of the kite is simply the product of the two diagonals over $2$. Since the length $HF = 1$, our answer is $\dfrac{\dfrac{1}{3} \cdot 1}{2} = \boxed{\textbf{(E)} \: \dfrac16}$.

$[asy] import graph; size(9cm); pen dps = fontsize(10); defaultpen(dps); pair D = (0,0); pair F = (1/2,0); pair C = (1,0); pair G = (0,1); pair E = (1,1); pair A = (0,2); pair B = (1,2); pair H = (1/2,1); // do not look pair X = (1/3,2/3); pair Y = (2/3,2/3); draw(A--B--C--D--cycle); draw(G--E); draw(A--F--B); draw(D--H--C); filldraw(H--X--F--Y--cycle,grey); draw(X--Y,dashed); label("A\: (0,2)",A,NW); label("B",B,NE); label("C",C,SE); label("D \: (0,0)",D,SW); label("E",E,E); label("F\: (\frac12,0)",F,S); label("G",G,W); label("H \: (\frac12,1)",H,N); label("Y",Y,E); label("X",X,W); label("\frac12",(0.25,0),S); label("\frac12",(0.75,0),S); label("1",(1,0.5),E); label("1",(1,1.5),E); [/asy]$

## Solution 2

Let the area of the shaded region be $x$. Let the other two vertices of the kite be $I$ and $J$ with $I$ closer to $AD$ than $J$. Note that $[ABCD] = [ABF] + [DCH] - x + [ADI] + [BCJ]$. The area of $ABF$ is $1$ and the area of $DCH$ is $\dfrac{1}{2}$. We will solve for the areas of $ADI$ and $BCJ$ in terms of x by noting that the area of each triangle is the length of the perpendicular from $I$ to $AD$ and $J$ to $BC$ respectively. Because the area of $x$ = $\dfrac{1}{2}* IJ$ based on the area of a kite formula, $\dfrac{ab}{2}$ for diagonals of length $a$ and $b$, $IJ = 2x$. So each perpendicular is length $\dfrac{1-2x}{2}$. So taking our numbers and plugging them into $[ABCD] =[ABF] + [DCH] - x + [ADI] + [BCJ]$ gives us $2 = \dfrac{5}{2} - 3x$ Solving this equation for $x$ gives us $x = \boxed{\textbf{(E)} \: \frac{1}{6}}$

## Solution 3

From the diagram in Solution 1, let $e$ be the height of $XHY$ and $f$ be the height of $XFY$. It is clear that their sum is $1$ as they are parallel to $GD$. Let $k$ be the ratio of the sides of the similar triangles $XFY$ and $AFB$, which are similar because $XY$ is parallel to $AB$ and the triangles share angle $F$. Then $k = f/2$, as 2 is the height of $AFB$. Since $XHY$ and $DHC$ are similar for the same reasons as $XFY$ and $AFB$, the height of $XHY$ will be equal to the base, like in $DHC$, making $XY = e$. However, $XY$ is also the base of $XFY$, so $k = e / AB$ where $AB = 1$ so $k = e$. Subbing into $k = f/2$ gives a system of linear equations, $e + f = 1$ and $e = f/2$. Solving yields $e = XY = 1/3$ and $f = 2/3$, and since the area of the kite is simply the product of the two diagonals over $2$ and $HF = 1$, our answer is $\dfrac{\dfrac{1}{3} \cdot 1}{2} = \boxed{\textbf{(E)} \: \dfrac16}$.