2017 AIME II Problems/Problem 8

Revision as of 02:49, 3 March 2018 by Theultimate123 (talk | contribs) (Solution 3)

Problem

Find the number of positive integers $n$ less than $2017$ such that \[1+n+\frac{n^2}{2!}+\frac{n^3}{3!}+\frac{n^4}{4!}+\frac{n^5}{5!}+\frac{n^6}{6!}\] is an integer.

Solution 1 (Not Rigorous)

Writing the last two terms with a common denominator, we have $\frac{6n^5+n^6}{720} \implies \frac{n^5(6+n)}{720}$ By inspection. this yields that $n \equiv 0, 24 \pmod{30}$. Therefore, we get the final answer of $67 + 67 = \boxed{134}$.

Solution 2

Taking out the $1+n$ part of the expression and writing the remaining terms under a common denominator, we get $\frac{1}{720}(n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2)$. Therefore the expression $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2$ must equal $720m$ for some positive integer $m$. Taking both sides mod $2$, the result is $n^6 \equiv 0 \pmod{2}$. Therefore $n$ must be even. If $n$ is even, that means $n$ can be written in the form $2a$ where $a$ is a positive integer. Replacing $n$ with $2a$ in the expression, $64a^6+192a^5+480a^4+960a^3+1440a^2$ is divisible by $16$ because each coefficient is divisible by $16$. Therefore, if $n$ is even, $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2$ is divisible by $16$.

Taking the equation $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2=720m$ mod $3$, the result is $n^6 \equiv 0 \pmod{3}$. Therefore $n$ must be a multiple of $3$. If $n$ is a multiple of three, that means $n$ can be written in the form $3b$ where $b$ is a positive integer. Replacing $n$ with $3b$ in the expression, $729b^6+1458b^5+2430b^4+3240b^3+3240b^2$ is divisible by $9$ because each coefficient is divisible by $9$. Therefore, if $n$ is a multiple of $3$, $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2$ is divisibly by $9$.

Taking the equation $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2=720m$ mod $5$, the result is $n^6+n^5 \equiv 0 \pmod{5}$. The only values of $n (\text{mod }5)$ that satisfy the equation are $n\equiv0(\text{mod }5)$ and $n\equiv4(\text{mod }5)$. Therefore if $n$ is $0$ or $4$ mod $5$, $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2$ will be a multiple of $5$.

The only way to get the expression $n^6+6n^5+30n^4+120n^3+360n^2$ to be divisible by $720=16 \cdot 9 \cdot 5$ is to have $n \equiv 0 \pmod{2}$, $n \equiv 0 \pmod{3}$, and $n \equiv 0 \text{ or } 4 \pmod{5}$. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem or simple guessing and checking, we see $n\equiv0,24 \pmod{30}$. Because no numbers between $2011$ and $2017$ are equivalent to $0$ or $24$ mod $30$, the answer is $\frac{2010}{30}\times2=\boxed{134}$.

Solution 3

Note that $1+n+\frac{n^2}{2!}+\frac{n^3}{3!}+\frac{n^4}{4!}+\frac{n^5}{5!}$ will have a denominator that divides $5!$. Therefore, for the expression to be an integer, $\frac{n^6}{6!}$ must have a denominator that divides $5!$. Thus, $6\mid n^6$, and $6\mid n$. Let $n=6m$. Substituting gives $1+6m+\frac{6^2m^2}{2!}+\frac{6^3m^3}{3!}+\frac{6^4m^4}{4!}+\frac{6^5m^5}{5!}+\frac{6^6m^6}{6!}$. Note that the first $5$ terms are integers, so it suffices for $\frac{6^5m^5}{5!}+\frac{6^6m^6}{6!}$ to be an integer. This simplifies to $\frac{6^5}{5!}m^5(m+1)=\frac{324}{5}m^5(m+1)$. It follows that $5\mid m^5(m+1)$. Therefore, $m$ is either $0$ or $4$ modulo $5$. However, we seek the number of $n$, and $n=6m$. By CRT, $n$ is either $0$ or $24$ modulo $30$, and the answer is $67+67=\boxed{134}$.

-TheUltimate123

See Also

2017 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 7
Followed by
Problem 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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