# 2017 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 22

## Problem

Sides $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$ of equilateral triangle $ABC$ are tangent to a circle at points $B$ and $C$ respectively. What fraction of the area of $\triangle ABC$ lies outside the circle?

$\textbf{(A) } \frac{4\sqrt{3}\pi}{27}-\frac{1}{3}\qquad \textbf{(B) } \frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}-\frac{\pi}{8}\qquad \textbf{(C) } \frac{1}{2} \qquad \textbf{(D) } \sqrt{3}-\frac{2\sqrt{3}\pi}{9}\qquad \textbf{(E) } \frac{4}{3}-\frac{4\sqrt{3}\pi}{27}$

## Solution

$[asy] real sqrt3 = 1.73205080757; draw(Circle((4, 4), 4)); draw((4-2*sqrt3,6)--(4,4)--(4+2*sqrt3,6)--(4-2*sqrt3,6)--(4,12)--(4+2*sqrt3,6)); label("A", (4, 12.4)); label("B", (-.3, 6.3)); label("C", (8.3, 6.3)); label("O", (4, 3.4)); [/asy]$ Let the radius of the circle be $r$, and let its center be $O$. Since $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$ are tangent to circle $O$, then $\angle OBA = \angle OCA = 90^{\circ}$, so $\angle BOC = 120^{\circ}$. Therefore, since $\overline{OB}$ and $\overline{OC}$ are equal to $r$, then (pick your favorite method) $\overline{BC} = r\sqrt{3}$. The area of the equilateral triangle is $\frac{(r\sqrt{3})^2 \sqrt{3}}4 = \frac{3r^2 \sqrt{3}}4$, and the area of the sector we are subtracting from it is $\frac 13 \pi r^2 - \frac 12 r \cdot r \cdot \frac{\sqrt{3}}2 = \frac{\pi r^2}3 -\frac{r^2 \sqrt{3}}4$. The area outside of the circle is $\frac{3r^2 \sqrt{3}}4-\left(\frac{\pi r^2}3 -\frac{r^2 \sqrt{3}}4\right) = r^2 \sqrt{3} - \frac{\pi r^2}3$. Therefore, the answer is $$\frac{r^2 \sqrt{3} - \frac{\pi r^2}3}{\frac{3r^2 \sqrt{3}}4} = \boxed{\textbf{(E) } \frac 43 - \frac{4\sqrt 3 \pi}{27}}$$