Difference between revisions of "2017 USAJMO Problems/Problem 5"

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==Solution==
 
==Solution==
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THIS SOLUTION HAS NO DIAGRAM, SOMEONE WHO HAS ASYMPTOTE SKILLS PLEASE HELP.
  
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Suppose ray <math>OM</math> intersects the circumcircle of <math>BHC</math> at <math>N'</math>, and let the foot of the A-altitude of <math>ABC</math> be <math>E</math>. Note that <math>\angle BHE=90-\angle HBE=90-90+\angle C=\angle C</math>. Likewise, <math>\angle CHE=\angle B</math>. So, <math>\angle BHC=\angle BHE+\angle CHE=\angle B+\angle C</math>.
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<math>BHCN'</math> is cyclic, so <math>\angle BN'C=180-\angle BHC=180-\angle B-\angle C=\angle A</math>. Also, <math>\angle BAC=\angle A</math>. These two angles are on different circles and have the same measure, but they point to the same arc! Hence, the two circles must be congruent. (This is also a well-known result)
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We know, since <math>M</math> is the midpoint of <math>BC</math>, that <math>OM</math> is perpendicular to <math>BC</math>. <math>AH</math> is also perpendicular to <math>BC</math>, so the two lines are parallel. <math>AN</math> is a transversal, so <math>\angle HAN=\angle ANO</math>. We wish to prove that <math>\angle ANO=\angle ADO</math>, which is equivalent to <math>AOND</math> being cyclic.
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Now, assume that ray <math>OM</math> intersects the circumcircle of <math>ABC</math> at a point <math>P</math>. Point <math>P</math> must be the midpoint of <math>\stackrel{\frown}{BC}</math>. Also, since <math>AD</math> is an angle bisector, it must also hit the circle at the point <math>P</math>. The two circles are congruent, which implies <math>MN=MP\implies OD=DP\implies</math> ODP is isosceles. Angle ADN is an exterior angle, so <math>\angle ADN=\angle DOP+\angle DPO=2\angle DPO</math>.
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Assume WLOG that <math>\angle B>\angle C</math>. So, <math>\angle DPO=\angle APO=\frac{\angle B+\angle C}{2}-\angle C=\frac{\angle B-\angle C}{2}</math>.
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In addition, <math>\angle AON=\angle AOP=\angle AOB+\angle BOP=2\angle C+\angle A</math>. Combining these two equations, <math>\angle AON+\angle ADN=\angle B-\angle C+2\angle C+\angle A=\angle A+\angle B+\angle C=180</math>.
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Opposite angles sum to <math>180</math>, so quadrilateral <math>AOND</math> is cyclic, and the condition is proved.
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-william122
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
{{USAJMO newbox|year=2017|num-b=4|num-a=6}}
 
{{USAJMO newbox|year=2017|num-b=4|num-a=6}}

Revision as of 08:56, 22 April 2017

Problem

Let $O$ and $H$ be the circumcenter and the orthocenter of an acute triangle $ABC$. Points $M$ and $D$ lie on side $BC$ such that $BM = CM$ and $\angle BAD = \angle CAD$. Ray $MO$ intersects the circumcircle of triangle $BHC$ in point $N$. Prove that $\angle ADO = \angle HAN$.

Solution

THIS SOLUTION HAS NO DIAGRAM, SOMEONE WHO HAS ASYMPTOTE SKILLS PLEASE HELP.

Suppose ray $OM$ intersects the circumcircle of $BHC$ at $N'$, and let the foot of the A-altitude of $ABC$ be $E$. Note that $\angle BHE=90-\angle HBE=90-90+\angle C=\angle C$. Likewise, $\angle CHE=\angle B$. So, $\angle BHC=\angle BHE+\angle CHE=\angle B+\angle C$. $BHCN'$ is cyclic, so $\angle BN'C=180-\angle BHC=180-\angle B-\angle C=\angle A$. Also, $\angle BAC=\angle A$. These two angles are on different circles and have the same measure, but they point to the same arc! Hence, the two circles must be congruent. (This is also a well-known result)

We know, since $M$ is the midpoint of $BC$, that $OM$ is perpendicular to $BC$. $AH$ is also perpendicular to $BC$, so the two lines are parallel. $AN$ is a transversal, so $\angle HAN=\angle ANO$. We wish to prove that $\angle ANO=\angle ADO$, which is equivalent to $AOND$ being cyclic.

Now, assume that ray $OM$ intersects the circumcircle of $ABC$ at a point $P$. Point $P$ must be the midpoint of $\stackrel{\frown}{BC}$. Also, since $AD$ is an angle bisector, it must also hit the circle at the point $P$. The two circles are congruent, which implies $MN=MP\implies OD=DP\implies$ ODP is isosceles. Angle ADN is an exterior angle, so $\angle ADN=\angle DOP+\angle DPO=2\angle DPO$. Assume WLOG that $\angle B>\angle C$. So, $\angle DPO=\angle APO=\frac{\angle B+\angle C}{2}-\angle C=\frac{\angle B-\angle C}{2}$. In addition, $\angle AON=\angle AOP=\angle AOB+\angle BOP=2\angle C+\angle A$. Combining these two equations, $\angle AON+\angle ADN=\angle B-\angle C+2\angle C+\angle A=\angle A+\angle B+\angle C=180$.

Opposite angles sum to $180$, so quadrilateral $AOND$ is cyclic, and the condition is proved.

-william122

See also

2017 USAJMO (ProblemsResources)
Preceded by
Problem 4
Followed by
Problem 6
1 2 3 4 5 6
All USAJMO Problems and Solutions
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