# 2020 AIME II Problems/Problem 15

## Problem

Let $\triangle ABC$ be an acute scalene triangle with circumcircle $\omega$. The tangents to $\omega$ at $B$ and $C$ intersect at $T$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be the projections of $T$ onto lines $AB$ and $AC$, respectively. Suppose $BT = CT = 16$, $BC = 22$, and $TX^2 + TY^2 + XY^2 = 1143$. Find $XY^2$.

## Solution

Assume $O$ to be the center of triangle $ABC$, $OT$ cross $BC$ at $M$, link $XM$, $YM$. Let $P$ be the middle point of $BT$ and $Q$ be the middle point of $CT$, so we have $MT=3\sqrt{15}$. Since $\angle A=\angle CBT=\angle BCT$, we have $\cos A=\frac{11}{16}$. Notice that $\angle XTY=180^{\circ}-A$, so $\cos XYT=-\cos A$, and this gives us $1143-2XY^2=\frac{-11}{8}XT\cdot YT$. Since $TM$ is perpendicular to $BC$, $BXTM$ and $CYTM$ cocycle (respectively), so $\theta_1=\angle ABC=\angle MTX$ and $\theta_2=\angle ACB=\angle YTM$. So $\angle XPM=2\theta_1$, so $$\frac{\frac{XM}{2}}{XP}=\sin \theta_1$$, which yields $XM=2XP\sin \theta_1=BT(=CT)\sin \theta_1=TY.$ So same we have $YM=XT$. Apply Ptolemy theorem in $BXTM$ we have $16TY=11TX+3\sqrt{15}BX$, and use Pythagoras theorem we have $BX^2+XT^2=16^2$. Same in $YTMC$ and triangle $CYT$ we have $16TX=11TY+3\sqrt{15}CY$ and $CY^2+YT^2=16^2$. Solve this for $XT$ and $TY$ and submit into the equation about $\cos XYT$, we can obtain the result $XY^2=\boxed{717}$.

(Notice that $MXTY$ is a parallelogram, which is an important theorem in Olympiad, and there are some other ways of computation under this observation.)

-Fanyuchen20020715

## Solution 2 (Official MAA)

Let $M$ denote the midpoint of $\overline{BC}$. The critical claim is that $M$ is the orthocenter of $\triangle AXY$, which has the circle with diameter $\overline{AT}$ as its circumcircle. To see this, note that because $\angle BXT = \angle BMT = 90^\circ$, the quadrilateral $MBXT$ is cyclic, it follows that $$\angle MXA = \angle MXB = \angle MTB = 90^\circ - \angle TBM = 90^\circ - \angle A,$$ implying that $\overline{MX} \perp \overline{AC}$. Similarly, $\overline{MY} \perp \overline{AB}$. In particular, $MXTY$ is a parallelogram. $[asy] defaultpen(fontsize(8pt)); unitsize(0.8cm); pair A = (0,0); pair B = (-1.26,-4.43); pair C = (-1.26+3.89, -4.43); pair M = (B+C)/2; pair O = circumcenter(A,B,C); pair T = (0.68, -6.49); pair X = foot(T,A,B); pair Y = foot(T,A,C); path omega = circumcircle(A,B,C); real rad = circumradius(A,B,C); filldraw(A--B--C--cycle, rgb(0.98,0.81,0.69)); label("\omega", O + rad*dir(45), SW); filldraw(T--Y--M--X--cycle, rgb(173/255,216/255,230/255)); draw(M--T); draw(X--Y); draw(B--T--C); draw(A--X--Y--cycle); draw(omega); dot("X", X, W); dot("Y", Y, E); dot("O", O, W); dot("T", T, S); dot("A", A, N); dot("B", B, W); dot("C", C, E); dot("M", M, N); [/asy]$ Hence, by the Parallelogram Law, $$TM^2 + XY^2 = 2(TX^2 + TY^2) = 2(1143-XY^2).$$ But $TM^2 = TB^2 - BM^2 = 16^2 - 11^2 = 135$. Therefore $$XY^2 = \frac13(2 \cdot 1143-135) = 717.$$

## Video Solution 2

 2020 AIME II (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) Preceded byProblem 14 Followed byLast Problem 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 All AIME Problems and Solutions