Difference between revisions of "2021 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 21"

m (Solution 3 (Graphing and Light Approximations))
 
(24 intermediate revisions by 3 users not shown)
Line 4: Line 4:
 
<math>\textbf{(A) }S<\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(B) }S=\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(C) }\sqrt2<S<2\qquad \textbf{(D) }2\le S<6 \qquad \textbf{(E) }S\ge 6</math>
 
<math>\textbf{(A) }S<\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(B) }S=\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(C) }\sqrt2<S<2\qquad \textbf{(D) }2\le S<6 \qquad \textbf{(E) }S\ge 6</math>
  
 
+
== Solution 1 (Rough Approximation) ==
== Solution (Rough Approximation) ==
 
 
Note that this solution is not recommended unless you're running out of time.
 
Note that this solution is not recommended unless you're running out of time.
  
 
Upon pure observation, it is obvious that one solution to this equality is <math>x=\sqrt{2}</math>. From this, we can deduce that this equality has two solutions, since <math>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math> grows faster than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> (for greater values of <math>x</math>) and <math>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math> is greater than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> for <math>x<\sqrt{2}</math> and less than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> for <math>\sqrt{2}<x<n</math>, where <math>n</math> is the second solution. Thus, the answer cannot be <math>\text{A}</math> or <math>\text{B}</math>. We then start plugging in numbers to roughly approximate the answer. When <math>x=2</math>, <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math>, thus the answer cannot be <math>\text{C}</math>. Then, when <math>x=4</math>, <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}=4^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}<64<\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}=256</math>. Therefore, <math>S<4+\sqrt{2}<6</math>, so the answer is <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 2 \le S < 6}</math>. ~Baolan
 
Upon pure observation, it is obvious that one solution to this equality is <math>x=\sqrt{2}</math>. From this, we can deduce that this equality has two solutions, since <math>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math> grows faster than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> (for greater values of <math>x</math>) and <math>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math> is greater than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> for <math>x<\sqrt{2}</math> and less than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> for <math>\sqrt{2}<x<n</math>, where <math>n</math> is the second solution. Thus, the answer cannot be <math>\text{A}</math> or <math>\text{B}</math>. We then start plugging in numbers to roughly approximate the answer. When <math>x=2</math>, <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math>, thus the answer cannot be <math>\text{C}</math>. Then, when <math>x=4</math>, <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}=4^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}<64<\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}=256</math>. Therefore, <math>S<4+\sqrt{2}<6</math>, so the answer is <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 2 \le S < 6}</math>. ~Baolan
 +
 +
== Solution 2 ==
 +
<math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}} = {\sqrt{2}}^{2^x}</math>
 +
 +
<math>2^{\sqrt{2}} \log x = 2^{x} \log \sqrt{2}</math> (At this point we see by inspection that <math>x=\sqrt{2}</math> is a solution.)
 +
 +
<math>\sqrt{2} \log 2 + \log \log x = x \log 2 + \log \log \sqrt{2}</math>
 +
 +
<math>\sqrt{2} + \log_2 \log_2 x = x + \log_2 \log_2 \sqrt{2} = x -1.</math>
 +
 +
<math>\log_2 \log_2 x = x - 1 - \sqrt{2}.</math>
 +
 +
RHS is a line. LHS is a concave curve that looks like a logarithm and has <math>x</math> intercept at <math>(2,0).</math>
 +
There are at most two solutions, one of which is <math>\sqrt{2}.</math> But note that at <math>x=2,</math> we have <math>\log_2 \log_2 (2) = 0 > 2 - 1 - \sqrt{2},</math> meaning that the log log curve is above the line, so it must intersect the line again at a point <math>x > 2.</math> Now we check <math>x=4</math> and see that <math>\log_2 \log_2 (4) = 1 < 4 - 1 - \sqrt{2},</math> which means at <math>x=4</math> the line is already above the log log curve. Thus, the second solution lies in the interval <math>(2,4).</math>
 +
The answer is <math>\boxed{2 \leq S < 6}.</math>
 +
 +
~ ccx09
 +
 +
==Solution 3 (Graphs and Light Approximations)==
 +
We rewrite the right side, then take the base-<math>2</math> logarithm for both sides:
 +
<cmath>\begin{align*}
 +
x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=\left(2^\frac12\right)^{2^x} \\
 +
x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{\frac12\cdot2^x} \\
 +
x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{2^{x-1}} \\
 +
\log_2{\left(x^{2^{\sqrt2}}\right)}&=\log_2{\left(2^{2^{x-1}}\right)} \\
 +
2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}&=2^{x-1}. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (*)
 +
\end{align*}</cmath>
 +
By observations, <math>x=\sqrt2</math> is one solution. By quick sketches of <math>f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}</math> and <math>g(x)=2^{x-1},</math> we know that <math>(*)</math> has two solutions, with <math>x=\sqrt2</math> the smaller solution. We construct the following table of values:
 +
<cmath>\begin{array}{c|c|c|c}
 +
& & & \\ [-2ex]
 +
\boldsymbol{x} & \boldsymbol{f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}} & \boldsymbol{g(x)=2^{x-1}} & \textbf{Comparison} \\ [1ex]
 +
\hline
 +
& & & \\ [-1ex]
 +
1 & 0 & 1 & \\ [1ex]
 +
\sqrt2 & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & f\left(\sqrt2\right)=g\left(\sqrt2\right) \\ [1ex]
 +
2 & 2^{\sqrt2} & 2 & f(2)>g(2) \\ [1ex]
 +
3 & 2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{3} & 2^2 & \\ [1ex]
 +
4 & 2^{\sqrt2+1} & 2^3 & f(4)<g(4) \\ [1ex]
 +
\end{array}</cmath>
 +
Let <math>x=t</math> be the larger solution. Since exponential functions outgrow logarithmic functions, we have <math>f(x)<g(x)</math> for all <math>x>t.</math> By the <b>Intermediate Value Theorem</b>, we get <math>t\in(2,4),</math> from which <cmath>S=\sqrt2+t\in\left(\sqrt2+2,\sqrt2+4\right).</cmath>
 +
Finally, approximating with <math>\sqrt2\approx1.414</math> results in <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) }2\le S<6}.</math>
 +
 +
Graphs of <math>f(x)</math> and <math>g(x)</math> in Desmos: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/xyxzsvjort
 +
 +
~MRENTHUSIASM
  
 
== Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks) ==
 
== Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks) ==
Line 15: Line 59:
 
~ pi_is_3.14
 
~ pi_is_3.14
  
 +
==Video Solution by hippopotamus1:==
 +
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjO6C_qC13U&feature=youtu.be
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
{{AMC12 box|year=2021|ab=B|num-b=20|num-a=22}}
 
{{AMC12 box|year=2021|ab=B|num-b=20|num-a=22}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 06:06, 22 April 2021

Problem

Let $S$ be the sum of all positive real numbers $x$ for which\[x^{2^{\sqrt2}}=\sqrt2^{2^x}.\]Which of the following statements is true?

$\textbf{(A) }S<\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(B) }S=\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(C) }\sqrt2<S<2\qquad \textbf{(D) }2\le S<6 \qquad \textbf{(E) }S\ge 6$

Solution 1 (Rough Approximation)

Note that this solution is not recommended unless you're running out of time.

Upon pure observation, it is obvious that one solution to this equality is $x=\sqrt{2}$. From this, we can deduce that this equality has two solutions, since $\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}$ grows faster than $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}$ (for greater values of $x$) and $\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}$ is greater than $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}$ for $x<\sqrt{2}$ and less than $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}$ for $\sqrt{2}<x<n$, where $n$ is the second solution. Thus, the answer cannot be $\text{A}$ or $\text{B}$. We then start plugging in numbers to roughly approximate the answer. When $x=2$, $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}$, thus the answer cannot be $\text{C}$. Then, when $x=4$, $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}=4^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}<64<\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}=256$. Therefore, $S<4+\sqrt{2}<6$, so the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 2 \le S < 6}$. ~Baolan

Solution 2

$x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}} = {\sqrt{2}}^{2^x}$

$2^{\sqrt{2}} \log x = 2^{x} \log \sqrt{2}$ (At this point we see by inspection that $x=\sqrt{2}$ is a solution.)

$\sqrt{2} \log 2 + \log \log x = x \log 2 + \log \log \sqrt{2}$

$\sqrt{2} + \log_2 \log_2 x = x + \log_2 \log_2 \sqrt{2} = x -1.$

$\log_2 \log_2 x = x - 1 - \sqrt{2}.$

RHS is a line. LHS is a concave curve that looks like a logarithm and has $x$ intercept at $(2,0).$ There are at most two solutions, one of which is $\sqrt{2}.$ But note that at $x=2,$ we have $\log_2 \log_2 (2) = 0 > 2 - 1 - \sqrt{2},$ meaning that the log log curve is above the line, so it must intersect the line again at a point $x > 2.$ Now we check $x=4$ and see that $\log_2 \log_2 (4) = 1 < 4 - 1 - \sqrt{2},$ which means at $x=4$ the line is already above the log log curve. Thus, the second solution lies in the interval $(2,4).$ The answer is $\boxed{2 \leq S < 6}.$

~ ccx09

Solution 3 (Graphs and Light Approximations)

We rewrite the right side, then take the base-$2$ logarithm for both sides: \begin{align*} x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=\left(2^\frac12\right)^{2^x} \\ x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{\frac12\cdot2^x} \\ x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{2^{x-1}} \\ \log_2{\left(x^{2^{\sqrt2}}\right)}&=\log_2{\left(2^{2^{x-1}}\right)} \\ 2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}&=2^{x-1}. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (*) \end{align*} By observations, $x=\sqrt2$ is one solution. By quick sketches of $f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}$ and $g(x)=2^{x-1},$ we know that $(*)$ has two solutions, with $x=\sqrt2$ the smaller solution. We construct the following table of values: \[\begin{array}{c|c|c|c} & & & \\ [-2ex] \boldsymbol{x} & \boldsymbol{f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}} & \boldsymbol{g(x)=2^{x-1}} & \textbf{Comparison} \\ [1ex] \hline & & & \\ [-1ex] 1 & 0 & 1 & \\ [1ex] \sqrt2 & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & f\left(\sqrt2\right)=g\left(\sqrt2\right) \\ [1ex] 2 & 2^{\sqrt2} & 2 & f(2)>g(2) \\ [1ex] 3 & 2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{3} & 2^2 & \\ [1ex] 4 & 2^{\sqrt2+1} & 2^3 & f(4)<g(4) \\ [1ex] \end{array}\] Let $x=t$ be the larger solution. Since exponential functions outgrow logarithmic functions, we have $f(x)<g(x)$ for all $x>t.$ By the Intermediate Value Theorem, we get $t\in(2,4),$ from which \[S=\sqrt2+t\in\left(\sqrt2+2,\sqrt2+4\right).\] Finally, approximating with $\sqrt2\approx1.414$ results in $\boxed{\textbf{(D) }2\le S<6}.$

Graphs of $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ in Desmos: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/xyxzsvjort

~MRENTHUSIASM

Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks)

https://youtu.be/uCTpLB-kGR4

~ pi_is_3.14

Video Solution by hippopotamus1:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjO6C_qC13U&feature=youtu.be

See Also

2021 AMC 12B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 20
Followed by
Problem 22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

Invalid username
Login to AoPS