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Light is dual-natured because it is a wave that is made out of particles called photons. Photons are the smallest particles humans have ever known


Main article: Optics

Etymologically, optics is the study of vision. Light waves are electromagnetic waves - they consist of mutually perpendicular electric fields and magnetic fields, and can travel through a vacuum. Optics is the study of electromagnetic waves in general. So it covers all waves in the electromagnetic spectrum given below:

One of the most controversial questions in optics is whether light is a wave or a ray. Accordingly, there are two branches of optics, but only ray optics belongs to classical physics. Wave optics are a topic of modern physics. In ray, optics covers topics such as reflection and refraction and the dispersion of white light into its constituent colors.

See also