1981 AHSME Problems

1981 AHSME (Answer Key)
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  1. This is a 30-question, multiple choice test. Each question is followed by answers marked A, B, C, D and E. Only one of these is correct.
  2. You will receive 5 points for each correct answer, 2 points for each problem left unanswered, and 0 points for each incorrect answer.
  3. No aids are permitted other than scratch paper, graph paper, ruler, compass, protractor and erasers.
  4. Figures are not necessarily drawn to scale.
  5. You will have 90 minutes working time to complete the test.
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Problem 1

If $\sqrt{x+2}=2$, then $(x+2)^{2}$ equals

$\textbf{(A)}\ \sqrt{2}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 2\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 4\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 8\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 16$


Problem 2

Point $E$ is on side $AB$ of square $ABCD$. If $EB$ has length one and $EC$ has length two, then the area of the square is

$\textbf{(A)}\ \sqrt{3}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \sqrt{5}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 3\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 2\sqrt{3}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 5$


Problem 3

For $x\neq0$, $\dfrac{1}{x}+\dfrac{1}{2x}+\dfrac{1}{3x}$ equals

$\textbf{(A)}\ \dfrac{1}{2x}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{1}{6}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \dfrac{5}{6x}\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{11}{6x}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac{1}{6x^3}$


Problem 4

If three times the larger of two numbers is four times the smaller and the difference between the numbers is 8, the the larger of two numbers is

$\textbf{(A)}\ 16\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 24\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 32\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 44\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 52$


Problem 5

In trapezoid $ABCD$, sides $AB$ and $CD$ are parallel, and diagonal $BD$ and side $AD$ have equal length. If $m\angle DCB=110^\circ$ and $m\angle CBD=30^\circ$, then $m\angle ADB=$

$\textbf{(A)}\ 80^\circ\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 90^\circ\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 100^\circ\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 110^\circ\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 120^\circ$


Problem 6

If $\dfrac{x}{x-1}=\dfrac{y^2+2y-1}{y^2+2y-2}$, then $x$ equals

$\textbf{(A)}\ y^2+2y-1\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ y^2+2y-2\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ y^2+2y+2 \qquad \\ \textbf{(D)}\ y^2+2y+1\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ -y^2-2y+1$


Problem 7

How many of the first one hundred positive integers are divisible by all of the numbers $2$, $3$, $4$, and $5$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 0\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 1\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 2\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 3\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 4$


Problem 8

For all positive numbers $x$, $y$, $z$, the product $(x+y+z)^{-1}(x^{-1}+y^{-1}+z^{-1})(xy+yz+xz)^{-1}[(xy)^{-1}+(yz)^{-1}+(xz)^{-1}]$ equals $\textbf{(A)}\ x^{-2}y^{-2}z^{-2}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ x^{-2}+y^{-2}+z^{-2}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ (x+y+z)^{-1}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{1}{xyz}\qquad \\ \textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac{1}{xy+yz+xz}$


Problem 9

In the adjoining figure, $PQ$ is a diagonal of the cube. If $PQ$ has length $a$, then the surface area of the cube is

[asy] import three; unitsize(1cm); size(200); currentprojection=orthographic(1/3,-1,1/2); draw((0,0,0)--(1,0,0)--(1,1,0)--(0,1,0)--cycle,black); draw((0,0,0)--(0,0,1),black); draw((0,1,0)--(0,1,1),black); draw((1,1,0)--(1,1,1),black); draw((1,0,0)--(1,0,1),black); draw((0,0,1)--(1,0,1)--(1,1,1)--(0,1,1)--cycle,black); draw((0,0,0)--(1,1,1),black); label("$P$",(0, 0, 0),NW); label("$Q$",(1, 1, 1),NE); [/asy]

$\textbf{(A)}\ 2a^2\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 2\sqrt{2}a^2\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 2\sqrt{3}a^2\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 3\sqrt{3}a^2\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 6a^2$


Problem 10

The lines $L$ and $K$ are symmetric to each other with respect to the line $y=x$. If the equation of the line $L$ is $y=ax+b$ with $a\neq 0$ and $b\neq 0$, then the equation of $K$ is $y=$

$\textbf{(A)}\ \dfrac{1}{a}x+b\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ -\dfrac{1}{a}x+b\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \dfrac{1}{a}x-\dfrac{b}{a}\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{1}{a}x+\dfrac{b}{a}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac{1}{a}x-\dfrac{b}{a}$


Problem 11

The three sides of a right triangle have integral lengths which form an arithmetic progression. One of the sides could have length

$\textbf{(A)}\ 22\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 58\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 81\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 91\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 361$


Problem 12

If $p$, $q$, and $M$ are positive numbers and $q<100$, then the number obtained by increasing $M$ by $p\%$ and decreasing the result by $q\%$ exceeds $M$ if and only if

$\textbf{(A)}\ p>q \qquad\textbf{(B)}\ p>\dfrac{q}{100-q}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ p>\dfrac{q}{1-q}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ p>\dfrac{100q}{100+q}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ p>\dfrac{100q}{100-q}$


Problem 13

Suppose that at the end of any year, a unit of money has lost $10\%$ of the value it had at the beginning of that year. Find the smallest integer $n$ such that after $n$ years, the money will have lost at least $90\%$ of its value (To the nearest thousandth $\log_{10} 3 = 0.477$).

$\textbf{(A)}\ 14\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 16\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 18\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 20\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 22$


Problem 14

In a geometric sequence of real numbers, the sum of the first $2$ terms is $7$, and the sum of the first $6$ terms is $91$. The sum of the first $4$ terms is

$\textbf{(A)}\ 28\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 32\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 35\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 49\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 84$


Problem 15

If $b>1$, $x>0$, and $(2x)^{\log_b 2}-(3x)^{\log_b 3}=0$, then $x$ is

$\textbf{(A)}\ \dfrac{1}{216}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{1}{6}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 1\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 6\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \text{not uniquely determined}$


Problem 16

The base three representation of $x$ is \[12112211122211112222\] The first digit (on the left) of the base nine representation of $x$ is

$\textbf{(A)}\ 1\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 2\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 3\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 4\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 5$


Problem 17

The function $f$ is not defined for $x=0$, but, for all non-zero real numbers $x$, $f(x)+2f\left(\dfrac{1}x\right)=3x$. The equation $f(x)=f(-x)$ is satisfied by

$\textbf{(A)}\ \text{exactly one real number} \qquad \textbf{(B)}\ \text{exactly two real numbers} \qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \text{no real numbers}\qquad \\ \textbf{(D)}\ \text{infinitely many, but not all, non-zero real numbers} \qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \text{all non-zero real numbers}$


Problem 18

The number of real solutions to the equation \[\dfrac{x}{100}=\sin x\] is

$\textbf{(A)}\ 61\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 62\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 63\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 64\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 65$


Problem 19

In $\triangle ABC$, $M$ is the midpoint of side $BC$, $AN$ bisects $\angle BAC$, and $BN\perp AN$. If sides $AB$ and $AC$ have lengths $14$ and $19$, respectively, then find $MN$.

[asy] size(150); defaultpen(linewidth(0.7)+fontsize(10)); pair B=origin, A=14*dir(42), C=intersectionpoint(B--(30,0), Circle(A,19)), M=midpoint(B--C), b=A+14*dir(A--C), N=foot(A, B, b); draw(N--B--A--N--M--C--A^^B--M); markscalefactor=0.1; draw(rightanglemark(B,N,A)); pair point=N; label("$A$", A, dir(point--A)); label("$B$", B, dir(point--B)); label("$C$", C, dir(point--C)); label("$M$", M, dir(point--M)); label("$N$", N, dir(30)); label(rotate(angle(dir(A--C)))*"$19$", A--C, dir(A--C)*dir(90)); label(rotate(angle(dir(A--B)))*"$14$", A--B, dir(A--B)*dir(90)); [/asy]

$\textbf{(A)}\ 2\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{5}{2}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \dfrac{5}{2}-\sin\theta\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{5}{2}-\dfrac{1}{2}\sin\theta\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac{5}{2}-\dfrac{1}{2}\sin\left(\dfrac{1}{2}\theta\right)$


Problem 20

A ray of light originates from point $A$ and travels in a plane, being reflected $n$ times between lines $AD$ and $CD$ before striking a point $B$ (which may be on $AD$ or $CD$) perpendicularly and retracing its path back to $A$ (At each point of reflection the light makes two equal angles as indicated in the adjoining figure. The figure shows the light path for $n=3$). If $\measuredangle CDA=8^\circ$, what is the largest value $n$ can have?

[asy] unitsize(1.5cm); pair D=origin, A=(-6,0), C=6*dir(160), E=3.2*dir(160), F=(-2.1,0), G=1.5*dir(160), B=(-1.4095,0); draw((-6.5,0)--D--C,black); draw(A--E--F--G--B,black); dotfactor=4; dot("$A$",A,S); dot("$C$",C,N); dot("$R_1$",E,N); dot("$R_2$",F,S); dot("$R_3$",G,N); dot("$B$",B,S); markscalefactor=0.015; draw(rightanglemark(G,B,D)); draw(anglemark(C,E,A,12)); draw(anglemark(F,E,G,12)); draw(anglemark(E,F,A)); draw(anglemark(E,F,A,12)); draw(anglemark(B,F,G)); draw(anglemark(B,F,G,12)); draw(anglemark(E,G,F)); draw(anglemark(E,G,F,12)); draw(anglemark(E,G,F,16)); draw(anglemark(B,G,D)); draw(anglemark(B,G,D,12)); draw(anglemark(B,G,D,16)); label(D,"$D$",SE); [/asy]

$\textbf{(A)}\ 6\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 10\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 38\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 98\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \text{There is no largest value.}$


Problem 21

In a triangle with sides of lengths $a$, $b$, and $c$, $(a+b+c)(a+b-c) = 3ab$. The measure of the angle opposite the side length $c$ is

$\textbf{(A)}\ 15^\circ\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 30^\circ\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 45^\circ\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 60^\circ\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 150^\circ$


Problem 22

How many lines in a three dimensional rectangular coordinate system pass through four distinct points of the form $(i,j,k)$, where $i$, $j$, and $k$ are positive integers not exceeding four?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 60\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 64\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 72\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 76\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 100$


Problem 23

Equilateral $\triangle ABC$ is inscribed in a circle. A second circle is tangent internally to the circumcircle at $T$ and tangent to sides $AB$ and $AC$ at points $P$ and $Q$. If side $BC$ has length $12$, then segment $PQ$ has length

[asy] defaultpen(linewidth(.8pt)); pair B = origin; pair A = dir(60); pair C = dir(0); pair circ = circumcenter(A,B,C); pair P = intersectionpoint(circ--(circ + (-1,0)),A--B); pair Q = intersectionpoint(circ--(circ + (1,0)),A--C); label("$A$",A,N); label("$B$",B,SW); label("$C$",C,SE); label("$P$",P,NW); label("$Q$",Q,NE); label("$T$",(0.5,-0.3),S); draw(A--B--C--cycle); draw(circumcircle(A,B,C)); draw(P--Q); draw(Circle((0.5,0.09),0.385)); [/asy]

$\textbf{(A)}\ 6\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 6\sqrt{3}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 8\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 8\sqrt{3}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 9$


Problem 24

If $\theta$ is a constant such that $0 < \theta < \pi$ and $x + \dfrac{1}{x} = 2\cos{\theta}$, then for each positive integer $n$, $x^n + \dfrac{1}{x^n}$ equals

$\textbf{(A)}\ 2\cos\theta\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ 2^n\cos\theta\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 2\cos^n\theta\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ 2\cos n\theta\qquad \textbf{(E)}\ 2^n\cos^n\theta$


Problem 25

In $\triangle ABC$ in the adjoining figure, $AD$ and $AE$ trisect $\angle BAC$. The lengths of $BD$, $DE$ and $EC$ are $2$, $3$, and $6$, respectively. The length of the shortest side of $\triangle ABC$ is

[asy] defaultpen(linewidth(.8pt)); pair A = (0,11); pair B = (2,0); pair D = (4,0); pair E = (7,0); pair C = (13,0); label("$A$",A,N); label("$B$",B,SW); label("$C$",C,SE); label("$D$",D,S); label("$E$",E,S); label("$2$",midpoint(B--D),N); label("$3$",midpoint(D--E),NW); label("$6$",midpoint(E--C),NW); draw(A--B--C--cycle); draw(A--D); draw(A--E); [/asy]

$\textbf{(A)}\ 2\sqrt{10}\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ 11\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 6\sqrt{6}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ 6\qquad \textbf{(E)}\ \text{not uniquely determined by the given information}$


Problem 26

Alice, Bob, and Carol repeatedly take turns tossing a die. Alice begins; Bob always follows Alice; Carol always follows Bob; and Alice always follows Carol. Find the probability that Carol will be the first one to toss a six. (The probability of obtaining a six on any toss is $\dfrac{1}{6}$, independent of the outcome of any other toss.)

$\textbf{(A)}\ \dfrac{1}{3}\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{2}{9}\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ \dfrac{5}{18}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{25}{91}\qquad \textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac{36}{91}$


Problem 27

In the adjoining figure triangle $ABC$ is inscribed in a circle. Point $D$ lies on $\stackrel{\frown}{AC}$ with $\stackrel{\frown}{DC} = 30^\circ$, and point $G$ lies on $\stackrel{\frown}{BA}$ with $\stackrel{\frown}{BG}\, > \, \stackrel{\frown}{GA}$. Side $AB$ and side $AC$ each have length equal to the length of chord $DG$, and $\angle CAB = 30^\circ$. Chord $DG$ intersects sides $AC$ and $AB$ at $E$ and $F$, respectively. The ratio of the area of $\triangle AFE$ to the area of $\triangle ABC$ is

[asy] defaultpen(linewidth(.8pt)); pair C = origin; pair A = 2.5*dir(75); pair B = A + 2.5*dir(-75); path circ =circumcircle(A,B,C); pair D = waypoint(circ,(7/12)); pair G = waypoint(circ,(1/6)); pair E = intersectionpoint(D--G,A--C); pair F = intersectionpoint(A--B,D--G); label("$A$",A,N); label("$B$",B,SE); label("$C$",C,SW); label("$D$",D,SW); label("$G$",G,NE); label("$E$",E,NW); label("$F$",F,W); label("$30^\circ$",A,12S+E,fontsize(6pt)); draw(A--B--C--cycle); draw(circ); draw(Arc(A,0.25,-75,-105)); draw(D--G); [/asy]

$\textbf{(A)}\ \dfrac {2 - \sqrt {3}}{3}\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac {2\sqrt {3} - 3}{3}\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 7\sqrt {3}-12\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ 3\sqrt {3}-5\qquad\\ \textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac {9-5\sqrt {3}}{3}$


Problem 28

Consider the set of all equations $x^3 + a_2x^2 + a_1x + a_0 = 0$, where $a_2$, $a_1$, $a_0$ are real constants and $|a_i| < 2$ for $i = 0,1,2$. Let $r$ be the largest positive real number which satisfies at least one of these equations. Then

$\textbf{(A)}\ 1 < r < \dfrac{3}{2}\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{3}{2} < r < 2\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 2 < r < \dfrac{5}{2}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{5}{2} < r < 3\qquad \\ \textbf{(E)}\ 3 < r < \dfrac{7}{2}$


Problem 29

If $a > 1$, then the sum of the real solutions of

$\sqrt{a - \sqrt{a + x}} = x$

is equal to

$\textbf{(A)}\ \sqrt{a} - 1\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{a}- 1}{2}\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ \sqrt{a - 1}\qquad \textbf{(D)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{a - 1}}{2}\qquad \textbf{(E)}\ \dfrac{\sqrt{4a- 3} - 1}{2}$


Problem 30

If $a$, $b$, $c$, and $d$ are the solutions of the equation $x^4 - bx - 3 = 0$, then an equation whose solutions are \[\dfrac {a + b + c}{d^2}, \dfrac {a + b + d}{c^2}, \dfrac {a + c + d}{b^2}, \dfrac {b + c + d}{a^2}\]is

$\textbf{(A)}\ 3x^4 + bx + 1 = 0\qquad \textbf{(B)}\ 3x^4 - bx + 1 = 0\qquad \textbf{(C)}\ 3x^4 + bx^3 - 1 = 0\qquad \\\textbf{(D)}\ 3x^4 - bx^3 - 1 = 0\qquad  \textbf{(E)}\ \text{none of these}$


See also

1981 AHSME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
1980 AHSME
Followed by
1982 AHSME
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