1996 AIME Problems/Problem 5

Problem

Suppose that the roots of $x^3+3x^2+4x-11=0$ are $a$, $b$, and $c$, and that the roots of $x^3+rx^2+sx+t=0$ are $a+b$, $b+c$, and $c+a$. Find $t$.

Video Solution

https://youtu.be/3dfbWzOfJAI?t=2785

~ pi_is_3.14

Solution 1

By Vieta's formulas on the polynomial $P(x) = x^3+3x^2+4x-11 = (x-a)(x-b)(x-c) = 0$, we have $a + b + c = s = -3$, $ab + bc + ca = 4$, and $abc = 11$. Then

$t = -(a+b)(b+c)(c+a) = -(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) = -(-3-a)(-3-b)(-3-c)$

This is just the definition for $-P(-3) = \boxed{023}$.

Alternatively, we can expand the expression to get \begin{align*} t &= -(-3-a)(-3-b)(-3-c)\\  &= (a+3)(b+3)(c+3)\\  &= abc + 3[ab + bc + ca] + 9[a + b + c] + 27\\ t &= 11 + 3(4) + 9(-3) + 27 = 23\end{align*}

Solution 2

Each term in the expansion of $(a+b)(b+c)(c+a)$ has a total degree of 3. Another way to get terms with degree 3 is to multiply out $(a+b+c)(ab+bc+ca)$. Expanding both of these expressions and comparing them shows that:

$(a+b)(b+c)(c+a) = (ab+bc+ca)(a+b+c)-abc$ $t = -(a+b)(b+c)(c+a) = abc-(ab+bc+ca)(a+b+c) = 11-(4)(-3) = 23$

Solution 3

We have that $x^3+3x^2+4x-11=0$ for roots $a,b,c.$ In the second cubic function $x^3+rx^2+sx+t=0,$ the roots are $a+b,b+c,c+a.$

By Vieta's formulae, we see that $t= -(a+b)(b+c)(a+c).$ As we know that the sum of the roots of the first polynomial, $a+b+c$ is $-3$ by applying Vieta's again.

Using this fact, we can rewrite $t$ as $-(-3-a)(-3-b)(-3-c) = (a+3)(b+3)(c+3).$

Seeing this, we can find the value of the product of the roots by applying this to the first equation. This can be done by setting $x'=a+3,$ so, from this, we see that we should plug in $x'-3$ for $x$ in $x^3+3x^2+4x-11=0$.

After simplifying, we get that the polynomial is $x'^3 - 6x'^2 + 13x' - 23 = 0.$ Given that the product of the roots of this equation is equivalent to our desired value for $t$, we can apply Vieta's formulae for a third time to find that $t = -(\frac{-23}{1}) = \boxed{023}.$

~MathWhiz35

See also

1996 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 4
Followed by
Problem 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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