# 2004 AIME II Problems/Problem 12

## Problem

Let $ABCD$ be an isosceles trapezoid, whose dimensions are $AB = 6, BC=5=DA,$and $CD=4.$ Draw circles of radius 3 centered at $A$ and $B,$ and circles of radius 2 centered at $C$ and $D.$ A circle contained within the trapezoid is tangent to all four of these circles. Its radius is $\frac{-k+m\sqrt{n}}p,$ where $k, m, n,$ and $p$ are positive integers, $n$ is not divisible by the square of any prime, and $k$ and $p$ are relatively prime. Find $k+m+n+p.$

## Solution

Let the radius of the center circle be $r$ and its center be denoted as $O$. $[asy] pointpen = black; pathpen = black+linewidth(0.7); pen d = linewidth(0.7) + linetype("4 4"); pen f = fontsize(8); real r = (-60 + 48 * 3^.5)/23; pair A=(0,0), B=(6,0), D=(1, 24^.5), C=(5,D.y), O = (3,(r^2 + 6*r)^.5); D(MP("A",A)--MP("B",B)--MP("C",C,N)--MP("D",D,N)--cycle); D(CR(A,3));D(CR(B,3));D(CR(C,2));D(CR(D,2));D(CR(O,r)); D(O); D((3,0)--(3,D.y),d); D(A--O--D,d); MP("3",(3/2,0),S,f);MP("2",(2,D.y),N,f); [/asy]$

Clearly line $AO$ passes through the point of tangency of circle $A$ and circle $O$. Let $y$ be the height from the base of the trapezoid to $O$. From the Pythagorean Theorem, $$3^2 + y^2 = (r + 3)^2 \Longrightarrow y = \sqrt {r^2 + 6r}.$$

We use a similar argument with the line $DO$, and find the height from the top of the trapezoid to $O$, $z$, to be $z = \sqrt {r^2 + 4r}$.

Now $y + z$ is simply the height of the trapezoid. Let $D'$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $D$ to $AB$; then $AD' = 3 - 2 = 1$. By the Pythagorean Theorem, $(AD')^2 + (DD')^2 = (AD)^2 \Longrightarrow DD' = \sqrt{24}$ so we need to solve the equation $\sqrt {r^2 + 4r} + \sqrt {r^2 + 6r} = \sqrt {24}$. We can solve this by moving one radical to the other side, and squaring the equation twice to end with a quadratic equation.

Solving this, we get $r = \frac { - 60 + 48\sqrt {3}}{23}$, and the answer is $k + m + n + p = 60 + 48 + 3 + 23 = \boxed{134}$.

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. 