# 2006 AMC 12A Problems/Problem 17

## Problem

Square $ABCD$ has side length $s$, a circle centered at $E$ has radius $r$, and $r$ and $s$ are both rational. The circle passes through $D$, and $D$ lies on $\overline{BE}$. Point $F$ lies on the circle, on the same side of $\overline{BE}$ as $A$. Segment $AF$ is tangent to the circle, and $AF=\sqrt{9+5\sqrt{2}}$. What is $r/s$?

$[asy] real s = 90; real r = 50; pair e = (r/sqrt(2),r/sqrt(2)); pair f = (4.34, 74.58); draw((-s, 0) -- (-s,-s) -- (0, -s) -- (0,0) -- (-s, 0)); draw(circle(e,r)); draw((-s,0) -- f); dot(e); dot(f); label("A", (-s,0), W); label("B", (-s,-s), W); label("C", (0,-s), E); label("D", (0,0), SW); label("E", e, E); label("F", f, N); [/asy]$

$\mathrm{(A) \ } \frac{1}{2}\qquad \mathrm{(B) \ } \frac{5}{9}\qquad \mathrm{(C) \ } \frac{3}{5}\qquad \mathrm{(D) \ } \frac{5}{3}\qquad \mathrm{(E) \ } \frac{9}{5}$

## Solutions

### Solution 1

One possibility is to use the coordinate plane, setting $B$ at the origin. Point $A$ will be $(0,s)$ and $E$ will be $\left(s + \frac{r}{\sqrt{2}},\ s + \frac{r}{\sqrt{2}}\right)$ since $B, D$, and $E$ are collinear and contain a diagonal of $ABCD$. The Pythagorean theorem results in

$$AF^2 + EF^2 = AE^2$$

$$r^2 + \left(\sqrt{9 + 5\sqrt{2}}\right)^2 = \left(\left(s + \frac{r}{\sqrt{2}}\right) - 0\right)^2 + \left(\left(s + \frac{r}{\sqrt{2}}\right) - s\right)^2$$

$$r^2 + 9 + 5\sqrt{2} = s^2 + rs\sqrt{2} + \frac{r^2}{2} + \frac{r^2}{2}$$

$$9 + 5\sqrt{2} = s^2 + rs\sqrt{2}$$

This implies that $rs = 5$ and $s^2 = 9$; dividing gives us $\frac{r}{s} = \frac{5}{9} \Rightarrow B$.

### Solution 2

First note that angle $\angle AFE$ is right since $\overline{AF}$ is tangent to the circle. Using the Pythagorean Theorem on $\triangle AFE$, then, we see $$AE^2 = 9 + 5\sqrt{2} + r^2.$$

But it can also be seen that $\angle BDA = 45^\circ$. Therefore, since $D$ lies on $\overline{BE}$, $\angle ADE = 135^\circ$. Using the Law of Cosines on $\triangle ADE$, we see

$$AE^2 = s^2 + r^2 - 2sr\cos(135^\circ)$$ $$AE^2 = s^2 + r^2 - 2sr\left(-\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\right)$$ $$AE^2 = s^2 + r^2 + \sqrt{2}sr$$ $$9 + 5\sqrt{2} + r^2 = s^2 + r^2 + \sqrt{2}sr$$ $$9 + 5\sqrt{2} = s^2 + \sqrt{2}sr.$$

Thus, since $r$ and $s$ are rational, $s^2 = 9$ and $sr = 5$. So $s = 3$, $r = \frac{5}{3}$, and $\frac{r}{s} = \frac{5}{9}$.

### Solution 3

(Similar to Solution 1) First, draw line AE and mark a point Z that is equidistant from E and D so that $\angle{DZE} = 90^\circ$ and that line $\overline{AZ}$ includes point D. Since DE is equal to the radius $r$, $DZ=EZ=\frac{r}{\sqrt2}=\frac{r\sqrt2}{2}.$

Note that triangles $\triangle AFE$ and $\triangle AZE$ share the same hypotenuse $(AE)$, meaning that $$AZ^2+EZ^2=AF^2+EF^2$$ Plugging in our values we have: $$\left(s+\frac{r\sqrt{2}}{2}\right)^2+\left(\frac{r\sqrt{2}}{2}\right)^2=\left(\sqrt{9+5\sqrt{2}}\right)^2+r^2$$ $$s^2+sr\sqrt{2}+\frac{r^2}{2}+\frac{r^2}{2}=9+5\sqrt{2}+r^2$$ $$s^2+sr\sqrt{2}=9+5\sqrt{2}$$ By logic $s=3$ and $sr=5 \implies r=5/3.$

Therefore, $\frac{\frac{5}{3}}{3}=\frac{5}{9}=\boxed{B}$

### Solution 4 - Alcumus

Let $B=(0,0)$, $C=(s,0)$, $A=(0,s)$, $D=(s,s)$, and $E=\left(s+\frac{r}{\sqrt{2}},s+\frac{r}{\sqrt{2}} \right)$. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to $\triangle AFE$ to obtain $$r^2+\left(9+5\sqrt{2}\right)=\left(s+\frac{r}{\sqrt{2}}\right)^2+\left(\frac{r}{\sqrt{2}}\right)^2,$$ from which $9+5\sqrt{2}=s^2+rs\sqrt{2}$. Because $r$ and $s$ are rational, it follows that $s^2=9$ and $rs=5$, so $r/s = \boxed{5/9}$.

OR

Extend $\overline{AD}$ past $D$ to meet the circle at $G \ne D$. Because $E$ is collinear with $B$ and $D$, $\angle EDG = 45^\circ.$ Also, $ED = EG,$ which implies $\angle EGD = 45^\circ$, so $\triangle EDG$ is an isosceles right triangle. Thus $DG = r\sqrt{2}$. By the Power of a Point Theorem, \begin{align*} 9+5\sqrt{2} &= AF^2 \\ &= AD\cdot AG\\ & = AD\cdot \left(AD+DG\right) \\ &= s\left(s+r\sqrt{2}\right) \\ &= s^2+rs\sqrt{2}.\end{align*} As in the first solution, we conclude that $r/s=\boxed{5/9}$.

### Solution 5 - Answer Choices

(Last minute solution) We roughly measure the distance of $r$ and the distance of $y$. Since $r$ is clearly less than $s$, we can eliminate answer choices (D) and (E). Next, if we compare the distances, $r$ seems to be just a little more than half of $s$, thus eliminating answer choice (A). $r$ is only a little bit bigger than half of $s$, so we can reasonably assume that their ratio is less than $\frac{3}{5}$. That leaves us with answer choice $\boxed{C}$ , or $\frac{5}{9}$.