2015 AIME II Problems/Problem 14

Problem

Let $x$ and $y$ be real numbers satisfying $x^4y^5+y^4x^5=810$ and $x^3y^6+y^3x^6=945$. Evaluate $2x^3+(xy)^3+2y^3$.

Solution

The expression we want to find is $2(x^3+y^3) + x^3y^3$.

Factor the given equations as $x^4y^4(x+y) = 810$ and $x^3y^3(x^3+y^3)=945$, respectively. Dividing the latter by the former equation yields $\frac{x^2-xy+y^2}{xy} = \frac{945}{810}$. Adding 3 to both sides and simplifying yields $\frac{(x+y)^2}{xy} = \frac{25}{6}$. Solving for $x+y$ and substituting this expression into the first equation yields $\frac{5\sqrt{6}}{6}(xy)^{\frac{9}{2}} = 810$. Solving for $xy$, we find that $xy = 3\sqrt[3]{2}$, so $x^3y^3 = 54$. Substituting this into the second equation and solving for $x^3+y^3$ yields $x^3+y^3=\frac{35}{2}$. So, the expression to evaluate is equal to $2 \times \frac{35}{2} + 54 = \boxed{089}$.

Solution 2

Factor the given equations as $x^4y^4(x+y) = 810$ and $x^3y^3(x+y)(x^2-xy+y^2)=945$, respectively. By the first equation, $x+y=\frac{810}{x^4y^4}$. Plugging this in to the second equation and simplifying yields $(\frac{x}{y}-1+\frac{y}{x})=\frac{7}{6}$. Now substitute $\frac{x}{y}=a$. Solving the quadratic in $a$, we get $a=\frac{x}{y}=\frac{2}{3}$ or $\frac{3}{2}$ As both of the original equations were symmetric in $x$ and $y$, WLOG, let $\frac{x}{y}=\frac{2}{3}$, so $x=\frac{2}{3}y$. Now plugging this in to either one of the equations, we get the solutions $y=\frac{3(2^{\frac{2}{3}})}{2}$, $x=2^{\frac{2}{3}}$. Now plugging into what we want, we get $8+54+27=\boxed{089}$

Solution 3

Add three times the first equation to the second equation and factor to get $(xy)^3(x^3+3x^2y+3xy^2+y^3)=(xy)^3(x+y)^3=3375$. Taking the cube root yields $xy(x+y)=15$. Noting that the first equation is $(xy)^3\cdot(xy(x+y))=810$, we find that $(xy)^3=\frac{810}{15}=54$. Plugging this into the second equation and dividing yields $x^3+y^3 = \frac{945}{54} = \frac{35}{2}$. Thus the sum required, as noted in Solution 1, is $54+\frac{35}{2}\cdot2 = \boxed{089}$.

Solution 4

As with the other solutions, factor. But this time, let $a=xy$ and $b=x+y$. Then $a^4b=810$. Notice that $x^3+y^3 = (x+y)(x^2-xy+y^2) = b(b^2-3a)$. Now, if we divide the second equation by the first one, we get $7/6 = \frac{b^2-3a}{a}$; then $\frac{b^2}{a}=\frac{25}{6}$. Therefore, $a = \frac{6}{25}b^2$. Substituting $a$ into $b$ in equation 2 gives us $b^3 = \frac{5^3}{2}$; we are looking for $2b(b^2-3a)+a^3$. Finding $a$, we get $35$. Substituting into the first equation, we get $b=54$. Our final answer is $35+54=\boxed{089}$.

See also

2015 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 13
Followed by
Problem 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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