# 2016 APMO Problems

## Problem 1

We say that a triangle $ABC$ is great if the following holds: for any point $D$ on the side $BC$, if $P$ and $Q$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $D$ to the lines $AB$ and $AC$, respectively, then the reflection of $D$ in the line $PQ$ lies on the circumcircle of the triangle $ABC$. Prove that triangle $ABC$ is great if and only if $\angle A = 90^{\circ}$ and $AB = AC$.

## Problem 2

A positive integer is called fancy if it can be expressed in the form $$2^{a_1}+2^{a_2}+ \cdots+ 2^{a_{100}},$$where $a_1,a_2, \cdots, a_{100}$ are non-negative integers that are not necessarily distinct. Find the smallest positive integer $n$ such that no multiple of $n$ is a fancy number.

## Problem 3

Let $AB$ and $AC$ be two distinct rays not lying on the same line, and let $\omega$ be a circle with center $O$ that is tangent to ray $AC$ at $E$ and ray $AB$ at $F$. Let $R$ be a point on segment $EF$. The line through $O$ parallel to $EF$ intersects line $AB$ at $P$. Let $N$ be the intersection of lines $PR$ and $AC$, and let $M$ be the intersection of line $AB$ and the line through $R$ parallel to $AC$. Prove that line $MN$ is tangent to $\omega$.

## Problem 4

The country Dreamland consists of $2016$ cities. The airline Starways wants to establish some one-way flights between pairs of cities in such a way that each city has exactly one flight out of it. Find the smallest positive integer $k$ such that no matter how Starways establishes its flights, the cities can always be partitioned into $k$ groups so that from any city it is not possible to reach another city in the same group by using at most $28$ flights.

## Problem 5

Find all functions $f: \mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R}^+$ such that $$(z + 1)f(x + y) = f(xf(z) + y) + f(yf(z) + x),$$for all positive real numbers $x, y, z$.