2019 AIME I Problems/Problem 1


Consider the integer \[N = 9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + \cdots + \underbrace{99\ldots 99}_\text{321 digits}.\]Find the sum of the digits of $N$.

Solution 1

Let's express the number in terms of $10^n$. We can obtain $(10-1)+(10^2-1)+(10^3-1)+\cdots+(10^{321}-1)$. By the commutative and associative property, we can group it into $(10+10^2+10^3+\cdots+10^{321})-321$. We know the former will yield $1111....10$, so we only have to figure out what the last few digits are. There are currently $321$ 1's. We know the last four digits are $1110$, and that the others will not be affected if we subtract $321$. If we do so, we get that $1110-321=789$. This method will remove three $1$'s, and add a $7$, $8$ and $9$. Therefore, the sum of the digits is $(321-3)+7+8+9=\boxed{342}$.

-eric2020 -another Eric in 2020

A similar and simpler way to consider the initial manipulations is to observe that adding $1$ to each term results in $(10+100+... 10^{320}+10^{321})$. There are $321$ terms, so it becomes $11...0$, where there are $322$ digits in $11...0$. Then, subtract the $321$ you initially added.

~ BJHHar

Solution 2

We can see that $9=9$, $9+99=108$, $9+99+999=1107$, all the way to ten nines when we have $11111111100$. Then, when we add more nines, we repeat the same process, and quickly get that the sum of digits is $\boxed{342}$ since we have to add $9\lfloor \log 321 \rfloor$ to the sum of digits, which is $9\lceil \frac{321}9 \rceil$.

Solution 3 (Pattern)

Observe how adding results in the last term but with a $1$ concatenated in front and also a $1$ subtracted ($09$, $108$, $1107$, $11106$). Then for any index of terms, $n$, the sum is $11...10-n$, where the first term is of length $n+1$. Here, that is $\boxed{342}$.


Solution 4 (Official MAA)

Write \begin{align*}N &=(10-1)+(10^2-1)+\cdots+(10^{321}-1)\\ &=10+10^2+10^3+10^4+10^5+10^6+\cdots 10^{321}-321 \\ &=1110-321+10^4+10^5+10^6+\cdots+10^{321}\\ &=789+10^4+10^5+10^6+\cdots+10^{321}\\ \end{align*} The sum of the digits of $N$ is therefore equal to $7+8+9+(321-3)=342$.

Video Solution #1(Using Smart Manipulation)


Video Solution 2


Video Solution 3



Video Solution 4


~Shreyas S

Video Solution 5



See Also

2019 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
First Problem
Followed by
Problem 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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