# Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

In algebra, the **Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality**, also known as the **Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz Inequality** or informally as **Cauchy-Schwarz**, is an inequality with many ubiquitous formulations in abstract algebra, calculus, and contest mathematics. In high-school competitions, its applications are limited to elementary and linear algebra.

Its elementary algebraic formulation is often referred to as **Cauchy's Inequality** and states that for any list of reals and , with equality if and only if there exists a constant such that for all , or if one list consists of only zeroes. Along with the AM-GM Inequality, Cauchy-Schwarz forms the foundation for inequality problems in intermediate and olympiad competitions. It is particularly crucial in proof-based contests.

Its vector formulation states that for any vectors and in , where is the dot product of and and is the norm of , with equality if and only if there exists a scalar such that , or if one of the vectors is zero. This formulation comes in handy in linear algebra problems at intermediate and olympiad problems.

The full Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality is written in terms of abstract vector spaces. Under this formulation, the elementary algebraic, linear algebraic, and calculus formulations are different cases of the general inequality.

## Contents

## Proofs

Here is a list of proofs of Cauchy-Schwarz.

Consider the vectors and . If is the angle formed by and , then the left-hand side of the inequality is equal to the square of the dot product of and , or .The right hand side of the inequality is equal to . The inequality then follows from , with equality when one of is a multiple of the other, as desired.

## Lemmas

### Complex Form

The inequality sometimes appears in the following form.

Let and be complex numbers. Then This appears to be more powerful, but it follows from

### A Useful Inequality

Also known as Sedrakyan's Inequality, Bergström's Inequality, Engel's Form or Titu's Lemma the following inequality is a direct result of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality:

For any real numbers and where the following is true:

## Real Vector Spaces

Let be a vector space, and let be an inner product. Then for any , with equality if and only if there exist constants not both zero such that . The following proofs assume the inner product to be real-valued and commutative, and so only apply to vector spaces over the real numbers.

### Proof 1

Consider the polynomial of This must always be greater than or equal to zero, so it must have a non-positive discriminant, i.e., must be less than or equal to , with equality when or when there exists some scalar such that , as desired.

### Proof 2

We consider Since this is always greater than or equal to zero, we have Now, if either or is equal to , then . Otherwise, we may normalize so that , and we have with equality when and may be scaled to each other, as desired.

### Proof 3

Consider for some scalar . Then: (by the Trivial Inequality) . Now, let . Then, we have: .

## Complex Vector Spaces

For any two vectors in the complex vector space , the following holds: with equality holding only when are linearly dependent.

### Proof

The following proof, a geometric argument that uses only the algebraic properties of the inner product, was discovered by Tarung Bhimnathwala in 2021.

Define the unit vectors , as and . Put . In other words, is the complex argument of and lies on the unit circle. Let and . Importantly, we have Since and , this calculation shows that and form an orthogonal basis of the linear subspace spanned by and . Thus we can think of and as lying on the unit sphere in this subspace, which is isomorphic to . Another thing to note is that

The previous two calculations established that and are orthogonal, and that the sum of their squared norms is . Now we have Equality holds when either or , or equivalently when and . Lastly, multiplying each side by , we have

## Problems

### Introductory

- Consider the function , where is a positive integer. Show that . (Source)
- (APMO 1991 #3) Let , , , , , , , be positive real numbers such that . Show that

### Intermediate

- Let be a triangle such that

where and denote its semiperimeter and inradius, respectively. Prove that triangle is similar to a triangle whose side lengths are all positive integers with no common divisor and determine those integers. (Source)

### Olympiad

- is a point inside a given triangle . are the feet of the perpendiculars from to the lines , respectively. Find all for which

is least.

(Source)

## Other Resources

### Books

- The Cauchy-Schwarz Master Class: An Introduction to the Art of Mathematical Inequalities by J. Michael Steele.
- Problem Solving Strategies by Arthur Engel contains significant material on inequalities.