Named in honor of Yale University mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot, the Mandelbrot Competition was a highly challenging mathematics competition for primarily high school students. It was often regarded as a predecessor to the Olympiad-level American mathematics competitions.
The Mandelbrot Competition was started in 1990 by Sandor Lehoczky, Richard Rusczyk, and Sam Vandervelde. Sam has written the tests and managed the contest on his own since 1997, and he has compiled two books consisting of past contests. Lehoczky now enjoys a successful career on Wall Street and Rusczyk runs the Art of Problem Solving. The competition was permanently discontinued in 2019.