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Difference between revisions of "1970 AHSME Problems/Problem 19"

(Created page with "== Problem == The sum of an infinite geometric series with common ratio <math>r</math> such that <math>|r|<1</math> is <math>15</math>, and the sum of the squares of the terms o...")
 
 
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The sum of an infinite geometric series with common ratio <math>r</math> such that <math>|r|<1</math> is <math>15</math>, and the sum of the squares of the terms of this series is <math>45</math>. The first term of the series is
 
The sum of an infinite geometric series with common ratio <math>r</math> such that <math>|r|<1</math> is <math>15</math>, and the sum of the squares of the terms of this series is <math>45</math>. The first term of the series is
  
<math>\text{(A) } 12\quad
+
<math>\textbf{(A) } 12\quad
\text{(B) } 10\quad
+
\textbf{(B) } 10\quad
\text{(C) } 5\quad
+
\textbf{(C) } 5\quad
\text{(D) } 3\quad
+
\textbf{(D) } 3\quad
\text{(E) 2} </math>
+
\textbf{(E) 2} </math>
  
 
== Solution ==
 
== Solution ==
<math>\fbox{C}</math>
+
We know that the formula for the sum of an infinite geometric series is <math>S = \frac{a}{1-r}</math>.
 +
 
 +
So we can apply this to the conditions given by the problem.
 +
 
 +
We have two equations:
 +
 
 +
<cmath>
 +
\begin{align*}
 +
15 &= \frac{a}{1-r} \\
 +
45 &= \frac{a^{2}}{1-r^{2}}
 +
\end{align*}
 +
</cmath>
 +
 
 +
We get
 +
 
 +
<cmath>
 +
\begin{align*}
 +
a &= 15 - 15r \\
 +
a^{2} &= 45 - 45r^{2} \\
 +
\\
 +
(15 - 15r)^{2} &= 45 - 45r^{2} \\
 +
270r^{2} - 450r + 180 &= 0 \\
 +
3r^{2} - 5r + 2 &= 0 \\
 +
(3r - 2)(r - 1) &= 0
 +
\end{align*}
 +
</cmath>
 +
 
 +
Since <math>|r| < 1</math>, <math>r = \frac{2}{3}</math>, so plug this into the equation above and we get <math>a = 15 - 15r = 15 - 10 = \boxed{\textbf{(C)} \quad 5}</math>
 +
 
 +
Solution by <math>\underline{\textbf{Invoker}}</math>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
{{AHSME box|year=1970|num-b=18|num-a=22}}   
+
{{AHSME 35p box|year=1970|num-b=18|num-a=20}}   
  
 
[[Category: Introductory Algebra Problems]]
 
[[Category: Introductory Algebra Problems]]
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 20:14, 20 February 2019

Problem

The sum of an infinite geometric series with common ratio $r$ such that $|r|<1$ is $15$, and the sum of the squares of the terms of this series is $45$. The first term of the series is

$\textbf{(A) } 12\quad \textbf{(B) } 10\quad \textbf{(C) } 5\quad \textbf{(D) } 3\quad \textbf{(E) 2}$

Solution

We know that the formula for the sum of an infinite geometric series is $S = \frac{a}{1-r}$.

So we can apply this to the conditions given by the problem.

We have two equations:

\begin{align*} 15 &= \frac{a}{1-r} \\ 45 &= \frac{a^{2}}{1-r^{2}} \end{align*}

We get

\begin{align*} a &= 15 - 15r \\ a^{2} &= 45 - 45r^{2} \\ \\ (15 - 15r)^{2} &= 45 - 45r^{2} \\ 270r^{2} - 450r + 180 &= 0 \\ 3r^{2} - 5r + 2 &= 0 \\ (3r - 2)(r - 1) &= 0 \end{align*}

Since $|r| < 1$, $r = \frac{2}{3}$, so plug this into the equation above and we get $a = 15 - 15r = 15 - 10 = \boxed{\textbf{(C)} \quad 5}$

Solution by $\underline{\textbf{Invoker}}$

See also

1970 AHSC (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 18
Followed by
Problem 20
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