Difference between revisions of "2019 AIME I Problems/Problem 13"

(Created page with "The 2019 Aime I takes place on March 29, 2019. ==Problem 13== ==Solution== ==See Also== {{AIME box|year=2019|n=I|num-b=12|num-a=14}} {{MAA Notice}}")
 
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The 2019 Aime I takes place on March 29, 2019.
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==Problem 13==
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Triangle <math>ABC</math> has side lengths <math>AB=4</math>, <math>BC=5</math>, and <math>CA=6</math>. Points <math>D</math> and <math>E</math> are on ray <math>AB</math> with <math>AB<AD<AE</math>. The point <math>F \neq C</math> is a point of intersection of the circumcircles of <math>\triangle ACD</math> and <math>\triangle EBC</math> satisfying <math>DF=2</math> and <math>EF=7</math>. Then <math>BE</math> can be expressed as <math>\tfrac{a+b\sqrt{c}}{d}</math>, where <math>a</math>, <math>b</math>, <math>c</math>, and <math>d</math> are positive integers such that <math>a</math> and <math>d</math> are relatively prime, and <math>c</math> is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find <math>a+b+c+d</math>.
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==Solution 1==
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<asy>
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unitsize(20);
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pair A, B, C, D, E, F, X, O1, O2;
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A = (0, 0); B = (4, 0);
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C = intersectionpoints(circle(A, 6), circle(B, 5))[0];
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D = B + (5/4 * (1 + sqrt(2)), 0); E = D + (4 * sqrt(2), 0);
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F = intersectionpoints(circle(D, 2), circle(E, 7))[1];
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X = extension(A, E, C, F);
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O1 = circumcenter(C, A, D);
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O2 = circumcenter(C, B, E);
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filldraw(A--B--C--cycle, lightcyan, deepcyan);
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filldraw(D--E--F--cycle, lightmagenta, deepmagenta);
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draw(B--D, gray(0.6));
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draw(C--F, gray(0.6));
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draw(circumcircle(C, A, D), dashed);
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draw(circumcircle(C, B, E), dashed);
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dot("$A$", A, dir(A-O1));
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dot("$B$", B, dir(240));
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dot("$C$", C, dir(120));
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dot("$D$", D, dir(40));
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dot("$E$", E, dir(E-O2));
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dot("$F$", F, dir(270));
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dot("$X$", X, dir(140));
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label("$6$", (C+A)/2, dir(C-A)*I, deepcyan);
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label("$5$", (C+B)/2, dir(B-C)*I, deepcyan);
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label("$4$", (A+B)/2, dir(A-B)*I, deepcyan);
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label("$7$", (F+E)/2, dir(F-E)*I, deepmagenta);
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label("$2$", (F+D)/2, dir(D-F)*I, deepmagenta);
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label("$4\sqrt{2}$", (D+E)/2, dir(E-D)*I, deepmagenta);
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label("$a$", (B+X)/2, dir(B-X)*I, gray(0.3));
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label("$a\sqrt{2}$", (D+X)/2, dir(D-X)*I, gray(0.3));
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</asy>
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Notice that <cmath>\angle DFE=\angle CFE-\angle CFD=\angle CBE-\angle CAD=180-B-A=C.</cmath>By the Law of Cosines, <cmath>\cos C=\frac{AC^2+BC^2-AB^2}{2\cdot AC\cdot BC}=\frac34.</cmath>Then, <cmath>DE^2=DF^2+EF^2-2\cdot DF\cdot EF\cos C=32\implies DE=4\sqrt2.</cmath>Let <math>X=\overline{AB}\cap\overline{CF}</math>, <math>a=XB</math>, and <math>b=XD</math>. Then, <cmath>XA\cdot XD=XC\cdot XF=XB\cdot XE\implies b(a+4)=a(b+4\sqrt2)\implies b=a\sqrt2.</cmath>However, since <math>\triangle XFD\sim\triangle XAC</math>, <math>XF=\tfrac{4+a}3</math>, but since <math>\triangle XFE\sim\triangle XBC</math>, <cmath>\frac75=\frac{4+a}{3a}\implies a=\frac54\implies BE=a+a\sqrt2+4\sqrt2=\frac{5+21\sqrt2}4,</cmath>and the requested sum is <math>5+21+2+4=\boxed{032}</math>.
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(Solution by TheUltimate123)
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==Solution 2==
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Define <math>\omega_1</math> to be the circumcircle of <math>\triangle ACD</math> and <math>\omega_2</math> to be the circumcircle of <math>\triangle EBC</math>.
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Because of exterior angles,
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<math>\angle ACB = \angle CBE - \angle CAD</math>
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But <math>\angle CBE = \angle CFE</math> because <math>CBFE</math> is cyclic. In addition, <math>\angle CAD = \angle CFD</math> because <math>CAFD</math> is cyclic. Therefore, <math>\angle ACB = \angle CFE - \angle CFD</math>. But <math>\angle CFE - \angle CFD = \angle DFE</math>, so <math>\angle ACB = \angle DFE</math>. Using Law of Cosines on <math>\triangle ABC</math>, we can figure out that <math>\cos(\angle ACB) = \frac{3}{4}</math>. Since <math>\angle ACB = \angle DFE</math>, <math>\cos(\angle DFE) = \frac{3}{4}</math>. We are given that <math>DF = 2</math> and <math>FE = 7</math>, so we can use Law of Cosines on <math>\triangle DEF</math> to find that <math>DE = 4\sqrt{2}</math>.
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Let <math>G</math> be the intersection of segment <math>\overline{AE}</math> and <math>\overline{CF}</math>. Using Power of a Point with respect to <math>G</math> within <math>\omega_1</math>, we find that <math>AG \cdot GD = CG \cdot GF</math>. We can also apply Power of a Point with respect to <math>G</math> within <math>\omega_2</math> to find that <math>CG \cdot GF = BG \cdot GE</math>. Therefore, <math>AG \cdot GD = BG \cdot GE</math>.
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<math>AG \cdot GD = BG \cdot GE</math>
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<math>(AB + BG) \cdot GD = BG \cdot (GD + DE)</math>
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<math>AB \cdot GD + BG \cdot GD = BG \cdot GD + BG \cdot DE</math>
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<math>AB \cdot GD = BG \cdot DE</math>
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<math>4 \cdot GD = BG \cdot 4\sqrt{2}</math>
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<math>GD = BG \cdot \sqrt{2}</math>
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Note that <math>\triangle GAC</math> is similar to <math>\triangle GFD</math>. <math>GF = \frac{BG + 4}{3}</math>. Also note that <math>\triangle GBC</math> is similar to <math>\triangle GFE</math>, which gives us <math>GF = \frac{7 \cdot BG}{5}</math>. Solving this system of linear equations, we get <math>BG = \frac{5}{4}</math>. Now, we can solve for <math>BE</math>, which is equal to <math>BG(\sqrt{2} + 1) + 4\sqrt{2}</math>. This simplifies to <math>\frac{5 + 21\sqrt{2}}{4}</math>, which means our answer is <math>\boxed{032}</math>.
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==Solution 3==
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Construct <math>FC</math> and let <math>FC\cap AE=K</math>. Let <math>FK=x</math>. Using <math>\triangle FKE\sim \triangle BKC</math>, <cmath>BK=\frac{5}{7}x</cmath> Using <math>\triangle FDK\sim ACK</math>, it can be found that <cmath>3x=AK=4+\frac{5}{7}x\to x=\frac{7}{4}</cmath> This also means that <math>BK=\frac{21}{4}-4=\frac{5}{4}</math>. It suffices to find <math>KE</math>. It is easy to see the following: <cmath>180-\angle ABC=\angle KBC=\angle KFE</cmath> Using reverse Law of Cosines on <math>\triangle ABC</math>, <math>\cos{\angle ABC}=\frac{1}{8}\to \cos{180-\angle ABC}=\frac{-1}{8}</math>. Using Law of Cosines on <math>\triangle EFK</math> gives <math>KE=\frac{21\sqrt 2}{4}</math>, so <math>BE=\frac{5+21\sqrt 2}{4}\to \textbf{032}</math>.
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-franchester
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==Solution 4 (No <C = <DFE, no LoC)==
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Let <math>P=AE\cap CF</math>. Let <math>CP=5x</math> and <math>BP=5y</math>; from <math>\triangle{CBP}\sim\triangle{EFP}</math> we have <math>EP=7x</math> and <math>FP=7y</math>. From <math>\triangle{CAP}\sim\triangle{DFP}</math> we have <math>\frac{6}{4+5y}=\frac{2}{7y}</math> giving <math>y=\frac{1}{4}</math>. So <math>BP=\frac{5}{4}</math> and <math>FP=\frac{7}{4}</math>. These similar triangles also gives us <math>DP=\frac{5}{3}x</math> so <math>DE=\frac{16}{3}x</math>. Now, Stewart's Theorem on <math>\triangle{FEP}</math> and cevian <math>FD</math> tells us that <cmath>\frac{560}{9}x^3+28x=\frac{49}{3}x+\frac{245}{3}x,</cmath>so <math>x=\frac{3\sqrt{2}}{4}</math>. Then <math>BE=\frac{5}{4}+7x=\frac{5+21\sqrt{2}}{4}</math> so the answer is <math>\boxed{032}</math> as desired. (Solution by Trumpeter, but not added to the Wiki by Trumpeter)
  
==Problem 13==
 
==Solution==
 
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
{{AIME box|year=2019|n=I|num-b=12|num-a=14}}
 
{{AIME box|year=2019|n=I|num-b=12|num-a=14}}
 +
 +
[[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]]
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Revision as of 12:26, 2 January 2021

Problem 13

Triangle $ABC$ has side lengths $AB=4$, $BC=5$, and $CA=6$. Points $D$ and $E$ are on ray $AB$ with $AB<AD<AE$. The point $F \neq C$ is a point of intersection of the circumcircles of $\triangle ACD$ and $\triangle EBC$ satisfying $DF=2$ and $EF=7$. Then $BE$ can be expressed as $\tfrac{a+b\sqrt{c}}{d}$, where $a$, $b$, $c$, and $d$ are positive integers such that $a$ and $d$ are relatively prime, and $c$ is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find $a+b+c+d$.

Solution 1

[asy] unitsize(20); pair A, B, C, D, E, F, X, O1, O2; A = (0, 0); B = (4, 0); C = intersectionpoints(circle(A, 6), circle(B, 5))[0]; D = B + (5/4 * (1 + sqrt(2)), 0); E = D + (4 * sqrt(2), 0); F = intersectionpoints(circle(D, 2), circle(E, 7))[1]; X = extension(A, E, C, F); O1 = circumcenter(C, A, D); O2 = circumcenter(C, B, E);  filldraw(A--B--C--cycle, lightcyan, deepcyan); filldraw(D--E--F--cycle, lightmagenta, deepmagenta); draw(B--D, gray(0.6)); draw(C--F, gray(0.6)); draw(circumcircle(C, A, D), dashed); draw(circumcircle(C, B, E), dashed);  dot("$A$", A, dir(A-O1)); dot("$B$", B, dir(240)); dot("$C$", C, dir(120)); dot("$D$", D, dir(40)); dot("$E$", E, dir(E-O2)); dot("$F$", F, dir(270)); dot("$X$", X, dir(140));  label("$6$", (C+A)/2, dir(C-A)*I, deepcyan); label("$5$", (C+B)/2, dir(B-C)*I, deepcyan); label("$4$", (A+B)/2, dir(A-B)*I, deepcyan); label("$7$", (F+E)/2, dir(F-E)*I, deepmagenta); label("$2$", (F+D)/2, dir(D-F)*I, deepmagenta); label("$4\sqrt{2}$", (D+E)/2, dir(E-D)*I, deepmagenta); label("$a$", (B+X)/2, dir(B-X)*I, gray(0.3)); label("$a\sqrt{2}$", (D+X)/2, dir(D-X)*I, gray(0.3)); [/asy]

Notice that \[\angle DFE=\angle CFE-\angle CFD=\angle CBE-\angle CAD=180-B-A=C.\]By the Law of Cosines, \[\cos C=\frac{AC^2+BC^2-AB^2}{2\cdot AC\cdot BC}=\frac34.\]Then, \[DE^2=DF^2+EF^2-2\cdot DF\cdot EF\cos C=32\implies DE=4\sqrt2.\]Let $X=\overline{AB}\cap\overline{CF}$, $a=XB$, and $b=XD$. Then, \[XA\cdot XD=XC\cdot XF=XB\cdot XE\implies b(a+4)=a(b+4\sqrt2)\implies b=a\sqrt2.\]However, since $\triangle XFD\sim\triangle XAC$, $XF=\tfrac{4+a}3$, but since $\triangle XFE\sim\triangle XBC$, \[\frac75=\frac{4+a}{3a}\implies a=\frac54\implies BE=a+a\sqrt2+4\sqrt2=\frac{5+21\sqrt2}4,\]and the requested sum is $5+21+2+4=\boxed{032}$.

(Solution by TheUltimate123)

Solution 2

Define $\omega_1$ to be the circumcircle of $\triangle ACD$ and $\omega_2$ to be the circumcircle of $\triangle EBC$.

Because of exterior angles,

$\angle ACB = \angle CBE - \angle CAD$

But $\angle CBE = \angle CFE$ because $CBFE$ is cyclic. In addition, $\angle CAD = \angle CFD$ because $CAFD$ is cyclic. Therefore, $\angle ACB = \angle CFE - \angle CFD$. But $\angle CFE - \angle CFD = \angle DFE$, so $\angle ACB = \angle DFE$. Using Law of Cosines on $\triangle ABC$, we can figure out that $\cos(\angle ACB) = \frac{3}{4}$. Since $\angle ACB = \angle DFE$, $\cos(\angle DFE) = \frac{3}{4}$. We are given that $DF = 2$ and $FE = 7$, so we can use Law of Cosines on $\triangle DEF$ to find that $DE = 4\sqrt{2}$.

Let $G$ be the intersection of segment $\overline{AE}$ and $\overline{CF}$. Using Power of a Point with respect to $G$ within $\omega_1$, we find that $AG \cdot GD = CG \cdot GF$. We can also apply Power of a Point with respect to $G$ within $\omega_2$ to find that $CG \cdot GF = BG \cdot GE$. Therefore, $AG \cdot GD = BG \cdot GE$.

$AG \cdot GD = BG \cdot GE$

$(AB + BG) \cdot GD = BG \cdot (GD + DE)$

$AB \cdot GD + BG \cdot GD = BG \cdot GD + BG \cdot DE$

$AB \cdot GD = BG \cdot DE$

$4 \cdot GD = BG \cdot 4\sqrt{2}$

$GD = BG \cdot \sqrt{2}$

Note that $\triangle GAC$ is similar to $\triangle GFD$. $GF = \frac{BG + 4}{3}$. Also note that $\triangle GBC$ is similar to $\triangle GFE$, which gives us $GF = \frac{7 \cdot BG}{5}$. Solving this system of linear equations, we get $BG = \frac{5}{4}$. Now, we can solve for $BE$, which is equal to $BG(\sqrt{2} + 1) + 4\sqrt{2}$. This simplifies to $\frac{5 + 21\sqrt{2}}{4}$, which means our answer is $\boxed{032}$.

Solution 3

Construct $FC$ and let $FC\cap AE=K$. Let $FK=x$. Using $\triangle FKE\sim \triangle BKC$, \[BK=\frac{5}{7}x\] Using $\triangle FDK\sim ACK$, it can be found that \[3x=AK=4+\frac{5}{7}x\to x=\frac{7}{4}\] This also means that $BK=\frac{21}{4}-4=\frac{5}{4}$. It suffices to find $KE$. It is easy to see the following: \[180-\angle ABC=\angle KBC=\angle KFE\] Using reverse Law of Cosines on $\triangle ABC$, $\cos{\angle ABC}=\frac{1}{8}\to \cos{180-\angle ABC}=\frac{-1}{8}$. Using Law of Cosines on $\triangle EFK$ gives $KE=\frac{21\sqrt 2}{4}$, so $BE=\frac{5+21\sqrt 2}{4}\to \textbf{032}$. -franchester

Solution 4 (No <C = <DFE, no LoC)

Let $P=AE\cap CF$. Let $CP=5x$ and $BP=5y$; from $\triangle{CBP}\sim\triangle{EFP}$ we have $EP=7x$ and $FP=7y$. From $\triangle{CAP}\sim\triangle{DFP}$ we have $\frac{6}{4+5y}=\frac{2}{7y}$ giving $y=\frac{1}{4}$. So $BP=\frac{5}{4}$ and $FP=\frac{7}{4}$. These similar triangles also gives us $DP=\frac{5}{3}x$ so $DE=\frac{16}{3}x$. Now, Stewart's Theorem on $\triangle{FEP}$ and cevian $FD$ tells us that \[\frac{560}{9}x^3+28x=\frac{49}{3}x+\frac{245}{3}x,\]so $x=\frac{3\sqrt{2}}{4}$. Then $BE=\frac{5}{4}+7x=\frac{5+21\sqrt{2}}{4}$ so the answer is $\boxed{032}$ as desired. (Solution by Trumpeter, but not added to the Wiki by Trumpeter)

See Also

2019 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 12
Followed by
Problem 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

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