Difference between revisions of "2019 AIME I Problems/Problem 2"

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==Solution 4==
 
==Solution 4==
We can see that if B chooses 20, J has options 1-18, such that <math>B-J\geq 2</math>. If B chooses 19, J has choices 1-17. By continuing this pattern, B will choose 3 and J will have 1 option. Summing up the total, we get <math>18+17+\cdots+1</math> as the total number of solutions. The total amount of choices is <math>20\times19</math> (B and J must choose different numbers), so the probability is <math>\frac{18*19/2}{20*19}=\frac{9}{20}</math>. Therefore, the answer is <math>9+20=\boxed{029}</math>
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We can see that if <math>B</math> chooses <math>20</math>, <math>J</math> can choose from <math>1</math> through <math>18</math> such that <math>B-J\geq 2</math>. If <math>B</math> chooses <math>19</math>, <math>J</math> has choices <math>1</math>~<math>17</math>. By continuing this pattern, <math>B</math> will choose <math>3</math> and <math>J</math> will have <math>1</math> option. Summing up the total, we get <math>18+17+\cdots+1</math> as the total number of solutions. The total amount of choices is <math>20\times19</math> (B and J must choose different numbers), so the probability is <math>\frac{18*19/2}{20*19}=\frac{9}{20}</math>. Therefore, the answer is <math>9+20=\boxed{029}</math>
  
 
-eric2020
 
-eric2020

Revision as of 11:51, 26 December 2019

Problem 2

Jenn randomly chooses a number $J$ from $1, 2, 3,\ldots, 19, 20$. Bela then randomly chooses a number $B$ from $1, 2, 3,\ldots, 19, 20$ distinct from $J$. The value of $B - J$ is at least $2$ with a probability that can be expressed in the form $\frac{m}{n}$ where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Solution

By symmetry, the desired probability is equal to the probability that $J - B$ is at most $-2$, which is $\frac{1-P}{2}$ where $P$ is the probability that $B$ and $J$ differ by $1$ (no zero, because the two numbers are distinct). There are $20 * 19 = 380$ total possible combinations of $B$ and $J$, and $1 + 18 * 2 + 1 = 38$ ones that form $P$, so $P = \frac{38}{380} = \frac{1}{10}$. Therefore the answer is $\frac{9}{20} \rightarrow \boxed{029}$.

Solution 2

This problem is asks how many ways there are to choose $2$ distinct elements from a $20$ element set such that no $2$ elements are adjacent. Using the well-known formula $\dbinom{n-k+1}{k}$, there are $\dbinom{20-2+1}{2} = \dbinom{19}{2} = 171$ ways. Dividing $171$ by $380$, our desired probability is $\frac{171}{380} = \frac{9}{20}$. Thus, our answer is $9+20=\boxed{029}$. -Fidgetboss_4000

Solution 3

Create a grid using graph paper, with $20$ columns for the values of $J$ from $1$ to $20$ and $20$ rows for the values of $B$ from $1$ to $20$. Since $B$ cannot equal $J$, we cross out the diagonal line from the first column of the first row to the twentieth column of the last row. Now, since $B - J$ must be at least $2$, we can mark the line where $B - J = 2$. Now we sum the number of squares that are on this line and below it. We get $171$. Then we find the number of total squares, which is $400 - 20 = 380$. Finally, we take the ratio $\frac{171}{380}$, which simplifies to $\frac{9}{20}$. Our answer is $9+20=\boxed{029}$.

Solution 4

We can see that if $B$ chooses $20$, $J$ can choose from $1$ through $18$ such that $B-J\geq 2$. If $B$ chooses $19$, $J$ has choices $1$~$17$. By continuing this pattern, $B$ will choose $3$ and $J$ will have $1$ option. Summing up the total, we get $18+17+\cdots+1$ as the total number of solutions. The total amount of choices is $20\times19$ (B and J must choose different numbers), so the probability is $\frac{18*19/2}{20*19}=\frac{9}{20}$. Therefore, the answer is $9+20=\boxed{029}$

-eric2020

Video Solution

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lh570eu8E0E

See Also

2019 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 1
Followed by
Problem 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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