Difference between revisions of "2020 AMC 12A Problems/Problem 17"

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m (Solution 1: Fixed the multi-line issue.)
 
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== Solution 1 ==
 
== Solution 1 ==
Let the coordinates of the quadrilateral be <math>(n,\ln(n)),(n+1,\ln(n+1)),(n+2,\ln(n+2)),(n+3,\ln(n+3))</math>. We have by shoelace's theorem, that the area is<cmath>\frac{\ln(n)(n+1) + \ln(n+1)(n+2) + \ln(n+2)(n+3)+n\ln(n+3)}{2} - \frac{\ln(n+1)(n) + \ln(n+2)(n+1) + \ln(n+3)(n+2)+\ln(n)(n+3)}{2}=</cmath><cmath>\frac{\ln \left( \frac{n^{n+1}(n+1)^{n+2}(n+2)^{n+3}(n+3)^n}{(n+1)^n(n+2)^{n+1}(n+3)^{n+2}n^{n+3}}\right)}{2} = \ln \left( \sqrt{\frac{(n+1)^2(n+2)^2}{n^2(n+3)^2}} \right) = \ln \left(\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}\right) = \ln \left( \frac{91}{90} \right).</cmath>We now that the numerator must have a factor of <math>13</math>, so given the answer choices, <math>n</math> is either <math>12</math> or <math>11</math>. If <math>n=11</math>, the expression <math>\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}</math> does not evaluate to <math>\frac{91}{90}</math>, but if <math>n=12</math>, the expression evaluates to <math>\frac{91}{90}</math>. Hence, our answer is <math>\boxed{12}</math>.
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Let the coordinates of the quadrilateral be <math>(n,\ln(n)),(n+1,\ln(n+1)),(n+2,\ln(n+2)),(n+3,\ln(n+3))</math>. We have by shoelace's theorem, that the area is
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<cmath>\begin{align*}
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&\frac{\ln(n)(n+1) + \ln(n+1)(n+2) + \ln(n+2)(n+3)+n\ln(n+3)}{2} - \frac{\ln(n+1)(n) + \ln(n+2)(n+1) + \ln(n+3)(n+2)+\ln(n)(n+3)}{2} \\
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&=\frac{\ln \left( \frac{n^{n+1}(n+1)^{n+2}(n+2)^{n+3}(n+3)^n}{(n+1)^n(n+2)^{n+1}(n+3)^{n+2}n^{n+3}}\right)}{2} \\
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&= \ln \left( \sqrt{\frac{(n+1)^2(n+2)^2}{n^2(n+3)^2}} \right) \\
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&= \ln \left(\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}\right) \\
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&= \ln \left( \frac{91}{90} \right).
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\end{align*}</cmath>
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We now that the numerator must have a factor of <math>13</math>, so given the answer choices, <math>n</math> is either <math>12</math> or <math>11</math>. If <math>n=11</math>, the expression <math>\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}</math> does not evaluate to <math>\frac{91}{90}</math>, but if <math>n=12</math>, the expression evaluates to <math>\frac{91}{90}</math>. Hence, our answer is <math>\boxed{12}</math>.
  
 
== Solution 2 ==
 
== Solution 2 ==

Latest revision as of 10:51, 19 April 2021

Problem

The vertices of a quadrilateral lie on the graph of $y=\ln{x}$, and the $x$-coordinates of these vertices are consecutive positive integers. The area of the quadrilateral is $\ln{\frac{91}{90}}$. What is the $x$-coordinate of the leftmost vertex?

$\textbf{(A) } 6 \qquad \textbf{(B) } 7 \qquad \textbf{(C) } 10 \qquad \textbf{(D) } 12 \qquad \textbf{(E) } 13$

Solution 1

Let the coordinates of the quadrilateral be $(n,\ln(n)),(n+1,\ln(n+1)),(n+2,\ln(n+2)),(n+3,\ln(n+3))$. We have by shoelace's theorem, that the area is \begin{align*} &\frac{\ln(n)(n+1) + \ln(n+1)(n+2) + \ln(n+2)(n+3)+n\ln(n+3)}{2} - \frac{\ln(n+1)(n) + \ln(n+2)(n+1) + \ln(n+3)(n+2)+\ln(n)(n+3)}{2} \\ &=\frac{\ln \left( \frac{n^{n+1}(n+1)^{n+2}(n+2)^{n+3}(n+3)^n}{(n+1)^n(n+2)^{n+1}(n+3)^{n+2}n^{n+3}}\right)}{2} \\ &= \ln \left( \sqrt{\frac{(n+1)^2(n+2)^2}{n^2(n+3)^2}} \right)  \\ &= \ln \left(\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}\right) \\ &= \ln \left( \frac{91}{90} \right). \end{align*} We now that the numerator must have a factor of $13$, so given the answer choices, $n$ is either $12$ or $11$. If $n=11$, the expression $\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}$ does not evaluate to $\frac{91}{90}$, but if $n=12$, the expression evaluates to $\frac{91}{90}$. Hence, our answer is $\boxed{12}$.

Solution 2

Like above, use the shoelace formula to find that the area of the triangle is equal to $\ln\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}$. Because the final area we are looking for is $\ln\frac{91}{90}$, the numerator factors into $13$ and $7$, which one of $n+1$ and $n+2$ has to be a multiple of $13$ and the other has to be a multiple of $7$. Clearly, the only choice for that is $\boxed{12}$

~Solution by IronicNinja

Solution 3

How $f(x)=\ln(x)$ is a concave function, then:

Problema17NivelSuperior.png

Therefore $[BCDE]=[ABCH]+[HCDG]+[GDEF]-[ABEF]$, all quadrilaterals of side right are trapezius

\[[BCDE]=\frac{\ln(n+1)+\ln n}{2}+\frac{\ln(n+2)+\ln(n+1)}{2}+\frac{\ln(n+3)+\ln(n+2)}{2}-\frac{3(\ln(n+3)+\ln n)}{2}\]

\[[BCDE]=\tfrac{2\ln(n+1)+2\ln(n+2)-2\ln(n+3)-2\ln n}{2}=\ln(n+1)+\ln(n+2)-\ln(n+3)-\ln n=\ln\tfrac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}\] \[\implies\ln\frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}=\ln\frac{91}{90}\implies \frac{(n+1)(n+2)}{n(n+3)}=\frac{91}{90}\] \[\implies n^2+3n-180=0\implies (n+15)(n-12)=0\implies n=12\]

~Solution by AsdrúbalBeltrán

Video Solution by TheBeautyofMath

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eq2A2TTahqU?t=583 Another example of shoelace theorem included earlier in the video

~IceMatrix

See Also

2020 AMC 12A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 16
Followed by
Problem 18
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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