Difference between revisions of "Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality"

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The '''Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality''' (which is known by other names, including '''Cauchy's Inequality''', '''Schwarz's Inequality''', and the '''Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz Inequality''') is a well-known [[inequality]] with many elegant applications.
+
In [[algebra]], the '''Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality''', also known as the '''Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz Inequality''' or informally as '''Cauchy-Schwarz''', is an [[inequality]] with many ubiquitous formulations in abstract algebra, calculus, and contest mathematics. In high-school competitions, its applications are limited to elementary and linear algebra.
  
== Elementary Form ==
+
Its elementary algebraic formulation is often referred to as '''Cauchy's Inequality''' and states that for any list of reals <math>a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n</math> and <math>b_1, b_2, \ldots, b_n</math>, <cmath>(a_1^2 + a_2^2 + \cdots + a_n^2)(b_1^2 + b_2^2 + \cdots + b_n^2) \geq (a_1b_1 + a_2b_2 + \cdots + a_nb_n)^2,</cmath> with equality if and only if there exists a constant <math>t</math> such that <math>a_n = t b_n</math> for all <math>1 \leq t \leq n</math>, or if every number in one of the lists is zero. Along with the [[AM-GM Inequality]], Cauchy-Schwarz forms the foundation for inequality problems in intermediate and olympiad competitions. It is particularly crucial in proof-based contests.
  
For any real numbers <math> a_1, \ldots, a_n </math> and <math> b_1, \ldots, b_n </math>,
+
Its vector formulation states that for any vectors <math>\overrightarrow{v}</math> and <math>\overrightarrow{w}</math> in <math>\mathbb{R}^n</math>, where <math>\overrightarrow{v} \cdot \overrightarrow{w}</math> is the [[dot product]] of <math>\overrightarrow{v}</math> and <math>\overrightarrow{w}</math> and <math>\| \overrightarrow{v} \|</math> is the [[norm]] of <math>\overrightarrow{v}</math>, <cmath>\|\overrightarrow{v}\| \|\overrightarrow{w}\| \geq |\overrightarrow{v} \cdot \overrightarrow{w}|</cmath> with equality if and only if there exists a scalar <math>t</math> such that <math>\overrightarrow{v} = t \overrightarrow{w}</math>, or if one of the vectors is zero. This formulation comes in handy in linear algebra problems at intermediate and olympiad problems.  
<center>
 
<math>
 
\left( \sum_{i=1}^{n}a_ib_i \right)^2 \le \left (\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i^2 \right )\left (\sum_{i=1}^{n}b_i^2 \right )
 
</math>,
 
</center>
 
with equality when there exist constants <math>\mu, \lambda </math> not both zero such that for all <math> 1 \le i \le n </math>, <math>\mu a_i = \lambda b_i </math>.
 
  
=== Proof ===
+
The full Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality is written in terms of abstract vector spaces. Under this formulation, the elementary algebraic, linear algebraic, and calculus formulations are different cases of the general inequality.
  
There are several proofs; we will present an elegant one that does not generalize.
+
== Proofs ==
 +
Here is a list of proofs of Cauchy-Schwarz.  
  
Consider the vectors <math> \mathbf{a} = \langle a_1, \ldots a_n \rangle </math> and <math> {} \mathbf{b} = \langle b_1, \ldots b_n \rangle </math>.  If <math>\theta </math> is the [[angle]] formed by <math> \mathbf{a} </math> and <math> \mathbf{b} </math>, then the left-hand side of the inequality is equal to the square of the [[dot product]] of <math> \mathbf{a} </math> and <math> \mathbf{b} </math>, or <math> \left( ||\mathbf{a}|| \cdot ||\mathbf{b}|| \cos\theta \right)^2 </math>. The right hand side of the inequality is equal to <math> \left( ||\mathbf{a}|| \cdot ||\mathbf{b}|| \right)^2 </math>.  The inequality then follows from <math> |\cos\theta | \le 1 </math>, with equality when one of <math> \mathbf{a,b} </math> is a multiple of the other, as desired. Note that this is not actually a proof; rather, this result is used to establish that we can define the angles between two vectors in this way.
+
Consider the vectors <math> \mathbf{a} = \langle a_1, \ldots a_n \rangle </math> and <math> {} \mathbf{b} = \langle b_1, \ldots b_n \rangle </math>.  If <math>\theta </math> is the [[angle]] formed by <math> \mathbf{a} </math> and <math> \mathbf{b} </math>, then the left-hand side of the inequality is equal to the square of the [[dot product]] of <math>\mathbf{a} </math> and <math> \mathbf{b} </math>, or <math>(\mathbf{a} \cdot \mathbf{b})^2 = a^2 b^2 (\cos\theta) ^2</math> .The right hand side of the inequality is equal to <math> \left( ||\mathbf{a}|| * ||\mathbf{b}|| \right)^2  =  a^2b^2</math>.  The inequality then follows from <math> |\cos\theta | \le 1 </math>, with equality when one of <math> \mathbf{a,b} </math> is a multiple of the other, as desired.
 +
 
 +
== Lemmas ==
  
 
=== Complex Form ===
 
=== Complex Form ===
 
 
The inequality sometimes appears in the following form.
 
The inequality sometimes appears in the following form.
  
 
Let <math> a_1, \ldots, a_n </math> and <math> b_1, \ldots, b_n </math> be [[complex numbers]].  Then
 
Let <math> a_1, \ldots, a_n </math> and <math> b_1, \ldots, b_n </math> be [[complex numbers]].  Then
<center>
+
<cmath>
<math>
+
\left| \sum_{i=1}^na_ib_i \right|^2 \le \left(\sum_{i=1}^{n}|a_i^2| \right) \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |b_i^2| \right)
\left| \sum_{i=1}^na_ib_i \right|^2 \le \left (\sum_{i=1}^{n}|a_i^2|\right ) \left (\sum_{i=1}^n |b_i^2|\right )
+
</cmath>
</math>.
+
This appears to be more powerful, but it follows from
</center>
+
<cmath>
This appears to be more powerful, but it follows immediately from
+
\left| \sum_{i=1}^n a_ib_i \right| ^2 \le \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |a_i| \cdot |b_i| \right)^2 \le \left(\sum_{i=1}^n |a_i^2| \right) \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |b_i^2| \right)
<center>
+
</cmath>
<math>
 
\left| \sum_{i=1}^n a_ib_i \right| ^2 \le \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |a_i| \cdot |b_i| \right)^2 \le \left(\sum_{i=1}^n |a_i^2|\right)\left( \sum_{i=1}^n |b_i^2|\right )
 
</math>.
 
</center>
 
  
 
== General Form ==
 
== General Form ==
  
Let <math>V </math> be a [[vector space]], and let <math> \langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle : V \times V \mapsto \mathbb{R} </math> be an [[inner product]].  Then for any <math> \mathbf{a,b} \in V </math>,
+
Let <math>V </math> be a [[vector space]], and let <math> \langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle : V \times V \to \mathbb{R} </math> be an [[inner product]].  Then for any <math> \mathbf{a,b} \in V </math>,
<center>
+
<cmath>
<math>
+
\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 \le \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle ,
\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 \le \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle
+
</cmath>
</math>,
 
</center>
 
 
with equality if and only if there exist constants <math>\mu, \lambda </math> not both zero such that <math> \mu\mathbf{a} = \lambda\mathbf{b} </math>.
 
with equality if and only if there exist constants <math>\mu, \lambda </math> not both zero such that <math> \mu\mathbf{a} = \lambda\mathbf{b} </math>.
  
Line 47: Line 37:
  
 
Consider the polynomial of <math> t </math>
 
Consider the polynomial of <math> t </math>
<center>
+
<cmath>
<math>
+
\langle t\mathbf{a + b}, t\mathbf{a + b} \rangle = t^2\langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + 2t\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle + \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle .
\langle t\mathbf{a + b}, t\mathbf{a + b} \rangle = t^2\langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + 2t\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle + \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle
+
</cmath>
</math>.
 
</center>
 
 
This must always be greater than or equal to zero, so it must have a non-positive discriminant, i.e., <math> \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 </math> must be less than or equal to <math> \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle </math>, with equality when <math> \mathbf{a = 0} </math> or when there exists some scalar <math>-t </math> such that <math> -t\mathbf{a} = \mathbf{b} </math>, as desired.
 
This must always be greater than or equal to zero, so it must have a non-positive discriminant, i.e., <math> \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 </math> must be less than or equal to <math> \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle </math>, with equality when <math> \mathbf{a = 0} </math> or when there exists some scalar <math>-t </math> such that <math> -t\mathbf{a} = \mathbf{b} </math>, as desired.
  
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We consider
 
We consider
<center>
+
<cmath>
<math>
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\langle \mathbf{a-b, a-b} \rangle = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle - 2 \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle .
\langle \mathbf{a-b, a-b} \rangle = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle - 2 \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle
+
</cmath>
</math>.
 
</center>
 
 
Since this is always greater than or equal to zero, we have
 
Since this is always greater than or equal to zero, we have
<center>
+
<cmath>
<math>
+
\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle \le \frac{1}{2} \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + \frac{1}{2} \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle .
\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle \le \frac{1}{2} \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + \frac{1}{2} \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle
+
</cmath>
</math>.
 
</center>
 
 
Now, if either <math> \mathbf{a} </math> or <math> \mathbf{b} </math> is equal to <math> \mathbf{0} </math>, then <math> \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle = 0 </math>.  Otherwise, we may [[normalize]] so that <math> \langle \mathbf {a,a} \rangle = \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle = 1 </math>, and we have
 
Now, if either <math> \mathbf{a} </math> or <math> \mathbf{b} </math> is equal to <math> \mathbf{0} </math>, then <math> \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle = 0 </math>.  Otherwise, we may [[normalize]] so that <math> \langle \mathbf {a,a} \rangle = \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle = 1 </math>, and we have
<center>
+
<cmath>
<math>
+
\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle \le 1 = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle^{1/2} \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle^{1/2} ,
\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle \le 1 = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle^{1/2} \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle^{1/2}
+
</cmath>
</math>,
 
</center>
 
 
with equality when <math>\mathbf{a} </math> and <math> \mathbf{b} </math> may be scaled to each other, as desired.
 
with equality when <math>\mathbf{a} </math> and <math> \mathbf{b} </math> may be scaled to each other, as desired.
  
=== Examples ===
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=== Proof 3 ===
  
The elementary form of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is a special case of the general form, as is the '''Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality for Integrals''': for integrable functions <math> f,g : [a,b] \mapsto \mathbb{R} </math>,
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Consider <math>a-\lambda b</math> for some scalar <math>\lambda</math>. Then:
<center>
+
<math>0\le||a-\lambda b||^2</math> (by the Trivial Inequality)
<math>
+
<math>=\langle a-\lambda b,a-\lambda b\rangle</math>
\left( \int_{a}^b f(x)g(x)dx \right)^2 \le \int_{a}^b [f(x)]^2dx \cdot \int_a^b [g(x)]^2 dx
+
<math>=\langle a,a\rangle-2\lambda\langle a,b\rangle+\lambda^2\langle y,y\rangle</math>
</math>,
+
<math>=||a||^2-2\lambda\langle a,b\rangle+\lambda^2||b||^2</math>.
</center>
+
Now, let <math>\lambda=\frac{\langle a,b\rangle}{||b||^2}</math>. Then, we have:
with equality when there exist constants <math> \mu, \lambda </math> not both equal to zero such that for <math> t \in [a,b] </math>,
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<math>0\le||a||^2-\frac{\langle a,b\rangle|^2}{||b||^2}</math>
<center>
+
<math>\implies\langle a,b\rangle|^2\le||a||^2||b||^2=\langle a,a\rangle\cdot\langle b,b\rangle</math>. <math>\square</math>
<math>
 
\mu \int_a^t f(x)dx = \lambda \int_a^t g(x)dx
 
</math>.
 
</center>
 
  
 
==Problems==
 
==Problems==
 +
 
===Introductory===
 
===Introductory===
 +
 
*Consider the function <math>f(x)=\frac{(x+k)^2}{x^2+1},x\in (-\infty,\infty)</math>, where <math>k</math> is a positive integer. Show that <math>f(x)\le k^2+1</math>. ([[User:Temperal/The_Problem_Solver's Resource Competition|Source]])
 
*Consider the function <math>f(x)=\frac{(x+k)^2}{x^2+1},x\in (-\infty,\infty)</math>, where <math>k</math> is a positive integer. Show that <math>f(x)\le k^2+1</math>. ([[User:Temperal/The_Problem_Solver's Resource Competition|Source]])
 +
* [http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?t=78687 (APMO 1991 #3)] Let <math>a_1</math>, <math>a_2</math>, <math>\cdots</math>, <math>a_n</math>, <math>b_1</math>, <math>b_2</math>, <math>\cdots</math>, <math>b_n</math> be positive real numbers such that <math>a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_n = b_1 + b_2 + \cdots + b_n</math>.  Show that
 +
<cmath>\frac {a_1^2}{a_1 + b_1} + \frac {a_2^2}{a_2 + b_2} + \cdots + \frac {a_n^2}{a_n + b_n} \geq \frac {a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_n}{2}</cmath>
 +
 
===Intermediate===
 
===Intermediate===
*Let <math>ABC </math> be a triangle such that
+
 
<center>
+
*Let <math>ABC</math> be a triangle such that
<math>
+
<cmath>
\left( \cot \frac{A}{2} \right)^2 + \left( 2 \cot \frac{B}{2} \right)^2 + \left( 3 \cot \frac{C}{2} \right)^2 = \left( \frac{6s}{7r} \right)^2
+
\left( \cot \frac{A}{2} \right)^2 + \left( 2 \cot \frac{B}{2} \right)^2 + \left( 3 \cot \frac{C}{2} \right)^2 = \left( \frac{6s}{7r} \right)^2 ,
</math>,
+
</cmath>
</center>
+
where <math>s</math> and <math>r</math> denote its [[semiperimeter]] and [[inradius]], respectively.  Prove that triangle <math>ABC </math> is similar to a triangle <math>T </math> whose side lengths are all positive integers with no common divisor and determine those integers.
where <math>s </math> and <math>r </math> denote its [[semiperimeter]] and [[inradius]], respectively.  Prove that triangle <math>ABC </math> is similar to a triangle <math>T </math> whose side lengths are all positive integers with no common divisor and determine those integers.
 
 
([[2002 USAMO Problems/Problem 2|Source]])
 
([[2002 USAMO Problems/Problem 2|Source]])
 +
 
===Olympiad===
 
===Olympiad===
 +
 
*<math>P</math> is a point inside a given triangle <math>ABC</math>.  <math>D, E, F</math> are the feet of the perpendiculars from <math>P</math> to the lines <math>BC, CA, AB</math>, respectively.  Find all <math>P</math> for which
 
*<math>P</math> is a point inside a given triangle <math>ABC</math>.  <math>D, E, F</math> are the feet of the perpendiculars from <math>P</math> to the lines <math>BC, CA, AB</math>, respectively.  Find all <math>P</math> for which
 
+
<cmath>
<center>
 
<math>
 
 
\frac{BC}{PD} + \frac{CA}{PE} + \frac{AB}{PF}
 
\frac{BC}{PD} + \frac{CA}{PE} + \frac{AB}{PF}
</math>
+
</cmath>
</center>
 
 
 
 
is least.
 
is least.
  
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[[Category:Inequality]]
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[[Category:Algebra]]
[[Category:Theorems]]
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[[Category:Inequalities]]

Latest revision as of 09:57, 25 February 2022

In algebra, the Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, also known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz Inequality or informally as Cauchy-Schwarz, is an inequality with many ubiquitous formulations in abstract algebra, calculus, and contest mathematics. In high-school competitions, its applications are limited to elementary and linear algebra.

Its elementary algebraic formulation is often referred to as Cauchy's Inequality and states that for any list of reals $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ and $b_1, b_2, \ldots, b_n$, \[(a_1^2 + a_2^2 + \cdots + a_n^2)(b_1^2 + b_2^2 + \cdots + b_n^2) \geq (a_1b_1 + a_2b_2 + \cdots + a_nb_n)^2,\] with equality if and only if there exists a constant $t$ such that $a_n = t b_n$ for all $1 \leq t \leq n$, or if every number in one of the lists is zero. Along with the AM-GM Inequality, Cauchy-Schwarz forms the foundation for inequality problems in intermediate and olympiad competitions. It is particularly crucial in proof-based contests.

Its vector formulation states that for any vectors $\overrightarrow{v}$ and $\overrightarrow{w}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$, where $\overrightarrow{v} \cdot \overrightarrow{w}$ is the dot product of $\overrightarrow{v}$ and $\overrightarrow{w}$ and $\| \overrightarrow{v} \|$ is the norm of $\overrightarrow{v}$, \[\|\overrightarrow{v}\| \|\overrightarrow{w}\| \geq |\overrightarrow{v} \cdot \overrightarrow{w}|\] with equality if and only if there exists a scalar $t$ such that $\overrightarrow{v} = t \overrightarrow{w}$, or if one of the vectors is zero. This formulation comes in handy in linear algebra problems at intermediate and olympiad problems.

The full Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality is written in terms of abstract vector spaces. Under this formulation, the elementary algebraic, linear algebraic, and calculus formulations are different cases of the general inequality.

Proofs

Here is a list of proofs of Cauchy-Schwarz.

Consider the vectors $\mathbf{a} = \langle a_1, \ldots a_n \rangle$ and ${} \mathbf{b} = \langle b_1, \ldots b_n \rangle$. If $\theta$ is the angle formed by $\mathbf{a}$ and $\mathbf{b}$, then the left-hand side of the inequality is equal to the square of the dot product of $\mathbf{a}$ and $\mathbf{b}$, or $(\mathbf{a} \cdot \mathbf{b})^2 = a^2 b^2 (\cos\theta) ^2$ .The right hand side of the inequality is equal to $\left( ||\mathbf{a}|| * ||\mathbf{b}|| \right)^2  =  a^2b^2$. The inequality then follows from $|\cos\theta | \le 1$, with equality when one of $\mathbf{a,b}$ is a multiple of the other, as desired.

Lemmas

Complex Form

The inequality sometimes appears in the following form.

Let $a_1, \ldots, a_n$ and $b_1, \ldots, b_n$ be complex numbers. Then \[\left| \sum_{i=1}^na_ib_i \right|^2 \le \left(\sum_{i=1}^{n}|a_i^2| \right) \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |b_i^2| \right)\] This appears to be more powerful, but it follows from \[\left| \sum_{i=1}^n a_ib_i \right| ^2 \le \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |a_i| \cdot |b_i| \right)^2 \le \left(\sum_{i=1}^n |a_i^2| \right) \left( \sum_{i=1}^n |b_i^2| \right)\]

General Form

Let $V$ be a vector space, and let $\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle : V \times V \to \mathbb{R}$ be an inner product. Then for any $\mathbf{a,b} \in V$, \[\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 \le \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle ,\] with equality if and only if there exist constants $\mu, \lambda$ not both zero such that $\mu\mathbf{a} = \lambda\mathbf{b}$.

Proof 1

Consider the polynomial of $t$ \[\langle t\mathbf{a + b}, t\mathbf{a + b} \rangle = t^2\langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + 2t\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle + \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle .\] This must always be greater than or equal to zero, so it must have a non-positive discriminant, i.e., $\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2$ must be less than or equal to $\langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle$, with equality when $\mathbf{a = 0}$ or when there exists some scalar $-t$ such that $-t\mathbf{a} = \mathbf{b}$, as desired.

Proof 2

We consider \[\langle \mathbf{a-b, a-b} \rangle = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle - 2 \langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle .\] Since this is always greater than or equal to zero, we have \[\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle \le \frac{1}{2} \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle + \frac{1}{2} \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle .\] Now, if either $\mathbf{a}$ or $\mathbf{b}$ is equal to $\mathbf{0}$, then $\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle^2 = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle = 0$. Otherwise, we may normalize so that $\langle \mathbf {a,a} \rangle = \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle = 1$, and we have \[\langle \mathbf{a,b} \rangle \le 1 = \langle \mathbf{a,a} \rangle^{1/2} \langle \mathbf{b,b} \rangle^{1/2} ,\] with equality when $\mathbf{a}$ and $\mathbf{b}$ may be scaled to each other, as desired.

Proof 3

Consider $a-\lambda b$ for some scalar $\lambda$. Then: $0\le||a-\lambda b||^2$ (by the Trivial Inequality) $=\langle a-\lambda b,a-\lambda b\rangle$ $=\langle a,a\rangle-2\lambda\langle a,b\rangle+\lambda^2\langle y,y\rangle$ $=||a||^2-2\lambda\langle a,b\rangle+\lambda^2||b||^2$. Now, let $\lambda=\frac{\langle a,b\rangle}{||b||^2}$. Then, we have: $0\le||a||^2-\frac{\langle a,b\rangle|^2}{||b||^2}$ $\implies\langle a,b\rangle|^2\le||a||^2||b||^2=\langle a,a\rangle\cdot\langle b,b\rangle$. $\square$

Problems

Introductory

  • Consider the function $f(x)=\frac{(x+k)^2}{x^2+1},x\in (-\infty,\infty)$, where $k$ is a positive integer. Show that $f(x)\le k^2+1$. (Source)
  • (APMO 1991 #3) Let $a_1$, $a_2$, $\cdots$, $a_n$, $b_1$, $b_2$, $\cdots$, $b_n$ be positive real numbers such that $a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_n = b_1 + b_2 + \cdots + b_n$. Show that

\[\frac {a_1^2}{a_1 + b_1} + \frac {a_2^2}{a_2 + b_2} + \cdots + \frac {a_n^2}{a_n + b_n} \geq \frac {a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_n}{2}\]

Intermediate

  • Let $ABC$ be a triangle such that

\[\left( \cot \frac{A}{2} \right)^2 + \left( 2 \cot \frac{B}{2} \right)^2 + \left( 3 \cot \frac{C}{2} \right)^2 = \left( \frac{6s}{7r} \right)^2 ,\] where $s$ and $r$ denote its semiperimeter and inradius, respectively. Prove that triangle $ABC$ is similar to a triangle $T$ whose side lengths are all positive integers with no common divisor and determine those integers. (Source)

Olympiad

  • $P$ is a point inside a given triangle $ABC$. $D, E, F$ are the feet of the perpendiculars from $P$ to the lines $BC, CA, AB$, respectively. Find all $P$ for which

\[\frac{BC}{PD} + \frac{CA}{PE} + \frac{AB}{PF}\] is least.

(Source)

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