2000 AIME II Problems/Problem 4

Problem

What is the smallest positive integer with six positive odd integer divisors and twelve positive even integer divisors?

Solution 1

We use the fact that the number of divisors of a number $n = p_1^{e_1}p_2^{e_2} \cdots p_k^{e_k}$ is $(e_1 + 1)(e_2 + 1) \cdots (e_k + 1)$. If a number has $18 = 2 \cdot 3 \cdot 3$ factors, then it can have at most $3$ distinct primes in its factorization.

Dividing the greatest power of $2$ from $n$, we have an odd integer with six positive divisors, which indicates that it either is ($6 = 2 \cdot 3$) a prime raised to the $5$th power, or two primes, one of which is squared. The smallest example of the former is $3^5 = 243$, while the smallest example of the latter is $3^2 \cdot 5 = 45$.

Suppose we now divide all of the odd factors from $n$; then we require a power of $2$ with $\frac{18}{6} = 3$ factors, namely $2^{3-1} = 4$. Thus, our answer is $2^2 \cdot 3^2 \cdot 5 = \boxed{180}$.

Solution 2

Somewhat similar to the first solution, we see that the number $n$ has two even factors for every odd factor. Thus, if $x$ is an odd factor of $n$, then $2x$ and $4x$ must be the two corresponding even factors. So, the prime factorization of $n$ is $2^2 3^a 5^b 7^c...$ for some set of integers $a, b, c, ...$

Since there are $18$ factors of $n$, we can write:

$(2+1)(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)... = 18$

$(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)... = 6$

Since $6$ only has factors from the set $1, 2, 3, 6$, either $a=5$ and all other variables are $0$, or $a=3$ and $b=2$, with again all other variables equal to $0$. This gives the two numbers $2^2 \cdot 3^5$ and $2^2 \cdot 3^2 \cdot 5$. The latter number is smaller, and is equal to $\boxed {180}$.

See also

2000 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 3
Followed by
Problem 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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