2000 AIME II Problems/Problem 7


Given that

$\frac 1{2!17!}+\frac 1{3!16!}+\frac 1{4!15!}+\frac 1{5!14!}+\frac 1{6!13!}+\frac 1{7!12!}+\frac 1{8!11!}+\frac 1{9!10!}=\frac N{1!18!}$

find the greatest integer that is less than $\frac N{100}$.


Multiplying both sides by $19!$ yields:

\[\frac {19!}{2!17!}+\frac {19!}{3!16!}+\frac {19!}{4!15!}+\frac {19!}{5!14!}+\frac {19!}{6!13!}+\frac {19!}{7!12!}+\frac {19!}{8!11!}+\frac {19!}{9!10!}=\frac {19!N}{1!18!}.\]

\[\binom{19}{2}+\binom{19}{3}+\binom{19}{4}+\binom{19}{5}+\binom{19}{6}+\binom{19}{7}+\binom{19}{8}+\binom{19}{9} = 19N.\]

Recall the Combinatorial Identity $2^{19} = \sum_{n=0}^{19} {19 \choose n}$. Since ${19 \choose n} = {19 \choose 19-n}$, it follows that $\sum_{n=0}^{9} {19 \choose n} = \frac{2^{19}}{2} = 2^{18}$.

Thus, $19N = 2^{18}-\binom{19}{1}-\binom{19}{0}=2^{18}-19-1 = (2^9)^2-20 = (512)^2-20 = 262124$.

So, $N=\frac{262124}{19}=13796$ and $\left\lfloor \frac{N}{100} \right\rfloor =\boxed{137}$.

Solution 2

Let $f(x) = (1+x)^{19}.$ Applying the binomial theorem gives us $f(x) = \binom{19}{19} x^{19} + \binom{19}{18} x^{18} + \binom{19}{17} x^{17}+ \cdots + \binom{19}{0}.$ Since $\frac 1{2!17!}+\frac 1{3!16!}+\dots+\frac 1{8!11!}+\frac 1{9!10!} = \frac{\frac{f(1)}{2} - \binom{19}{19} - \binom{19}{18}}{19!},$ $N = \frac{2^{18}-20}{19}.$ After some fairly easy bashing, we get $\boxed{137}$ as the answer.


Solution 3 (Brute Force)

Convert each denominator to $19!$ and get the numerators to be $9,51,204,612,1428,2652,3978,4862$ (refer to note). Adding these up we have $13796$ therefore $\boxed{137}$ is the desired answer.

Note: Notice that each numerator is increased each time by a factor of $\frac{17}{3}, \frac{16}{4}, \frac{15}{5}, \frac{14}{6},$ etc. until $\frac{11}{9}$. If you were taking the test under normal time conditions, it shouldn't be too hard to bash out all of the numbers but it is priority to be careful.


See also

2000 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 6
Followed by
Problem 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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