2013 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 19

The following problem is from both the 2013 AMC 12B #19 and 2013 AMC 10B #23, so both problems redirect to this page.


In triangle $ABC$, $AB=13$, $BC=14$, and $CA=15$. Distinct points $D$, $E$, and $F$ lie on segments $\overline{BC}$, $\overline{CA}$, and $\overline{DE}$, respectively, such that $\overline{AD}\perp\overline{BC}$, $\overline{DE}\perp\overline{AC}$, and $\overline{AF}\perp\overline{BF}$. The length of segment $\overline{DF}$ can be written as $\frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. What is $m+n$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 18\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 21\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 24\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 27\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 30$

Solution 1

Since $\angle{AFB}=\angle{ADB}=90^{\circ}$, quadrilateral $ABDF$ is cyclic. It follows that $\angle{ADE}=\angle{ABF}$. In addition, triangles $ABF$ and $ADE$ are similar. It follows that $AF=(13)(\frac{4}{5}), BF=(13)(\frac{3}{5})$. By Ptolemy's Theorem, we have $13DF+(5)(13)(\frac{4}{5})=(12)(13)(\frac{3}{5})$. Cancelling $13$, we obtain $DF=\frac{16}{5}$, so our answer is $16+5=\boxed{21\,\textbf{(B)}}$.

Solution 2

Using the similar triangles in triangle $ADC$ gives $AE = \frac{48}{5}$ and $DE = \frac{36}{5}$. Quadrilateral $ABDF$ is cyclic, implying that $\angle{B} + \angle{DFA}$ = 180°. Therefore, $\angle{B} = \angle{EFA}$, and triangles $AEF$ and $ADB$ are similar. Solving the resulting proportion gives $EF = 4$. Therefore, $DF = ED - EF = \frac{16}{5}$ and our answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(B)}}$.

Solution 3

If we draw a diagram as given, but then add point $G$ on $\overline{BC}$ such that $\overline{FG}\perp\overline{BC}$ in order to use the Pythagorean theorem, we end up with similar triangles $\triangle{DFG}$ and $\triangle{DCE}$. Thus, $FG=\tfrac35x$ and $DG=\tfrac45x$, where $x$ is the length of $\overline{DF}$. Using the Pythagorean theorem, we now get \[BF = \sqrt{\left(\frac45x+ 5\right)^2 + \left(\frac35x\right)^2}\] and $AF$ can be found out noting that $AE$ is just $\tfrac{48}5$ through base times height (since $12\cdot 9 = 15 \cdot \tfrac{36}5$, similar triangles gives $AE = \tfrac{48}5$), and that $EF$ is just $\tfrac{36}5 - x$. From there, \[AF = \sqrt{\left(\frac{36}5 - x\right)^2 + \left(\frac{48}5\right)^2}.\] Now, $BF^2 + AF^2 = 169$, and squaring and adding both sides and subtracting a 169 from both sides gives $2x^2 - \tfrac{32}5x = 0$, so $x = \tfrac{16}5$. Thus, the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(B)}}$.

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