# 2014 AIME I Problems/Problem 15

## Problem 15

In $\triangle ABC$, $AB = 3$, $BC = 4$, and $CA = 5$. Circle $\omega$ intersects $\overline{AB}$ at $E$ and $B$, $\overline{BC}$ at $B$ and $D$, and $\overline{AC}$ at $F$ and $G$. Given that $EF=DF$ and $\frac{DG}{EG} = \frac{3}{4}$, length $DE=\frac{a\sqrt{b}}{c}$, where $a$ and $c$ are relatively prime positive integers, and $b$ is a positive integer not divisible by the square of any prime. Find $a+b+c$.

## Solution 1

Since $\angle DBE = 90^\circ$, $DE$ is the diameter of $\omega$. Then $\angle DFE=\angle DGE=90^\circ$. But $DF=FE$, so $\triangle DEF$ is a 45-45-90 triangle. Letting $DG=3x$, we have that $EG=4x$, $DE=5x$, and $DF=EF=\frac{5x}{\sqrt{2}}$.

Note that $\triangle DGE \sim \triangle ABC$ by SAS similarity, so $\angle BAC = \angle GDE$ and $\angle ACB = \angle DEG$. Since $DEFG$ is a cyclic quadrilateral, $\angle BAC = \angle GDE=180^\circ-\angle EFG = \angle AFE$ and $\angle ACB = \angle DEG = \angle GFD$, implying that $\triangle AFE$ and $\triangle CDF$ are isosceles. As a result, $AE=CD=\frac{5x}{\sqrt{2}}$, so $BE=3-\frac{5x}{\sqrt{2}}$ and $BD =4-\frac{5x}{\sqrt{2}}$.

Finally, using the Pythagorean Theorem on $\triangle BDE$, $$\left(3-\frac{5x}{\sqrt{2}}\right)^2 + \left(4-\frac{5x}{\sqrt{2}}\right)^2 = (5x)^2$$ Solving for $x$, we get that $x=\frac{5\sqrt{2}}{14}$, so $DE= 5x =\frac{25 \sqrt{2}}{14}$. Thus, the answer is $25+2+14=\boxed{041}$.

## Solution 2

$[asy] pair A = (0,3); pair B = (0,0); pair C = (4,0); draw(A--B--C--cycle); dotfactor = 3; dot("A",A,dir(135)); dot("B",B,dir(215)); dot("C",C,dir(305)); pair D = (2.21, 0); pair E = (0, 1.21); pair F = (1.71, 1.71); pair G = (2, 1.5); dot("D",D,dir(270)); dot("E",E,dir(180)); dot("F",F,dir(90)); dot("G",G,dir(0)); draw(Circle((1.109, 0.609), 1.28)); draw(D--E); draw(E--F); draw(D--F); draw(E--G); draw(D--G); draw(B--F); draw(B--G); [/asy]$

First we note that $\triangle DEF$ is an isosceles right triangle with hypotenuse $\overline{DE}$ the same as the diameter of $\omega$. We also note that $\triangle DGE \sim \triangle ABC$ since $\angle EGD$ is a right angle and the ratios of the sides are $3:4:5$.

From congruent arc intersections, we know that $\angle GED \cong \angle GBC$, and that from similar triangles $\angle GED$ is also congruent to $\angle GCB$. Thus, $\triangle BGC$ is an isosceles triangle with $BG = GC$, so $G$ is the midpoint of $\overline{AC}$ and $AG = GC = 5/2$. Similarly, we can find from angle chasing that $\angle ABF = \angle EDF = \frac{\pi}4$. Therefore, $\overline{BF}$ is the angle bisector of $\angle B$. From the angle bisector theorem, we have $\frac{AF}{AB} = \frac{CF}{CB}$, so $AF = 15/7$ and $CF = 20/7$.

Lastly, we apply power of a point from points $A$ and $C$ with respect to $\omega$ and have $AE \times AB=AF \times AG$ and $CD \times CB=CG \times CF$, so we can compute that $EB = \frac{17}{14}$ and $DB = \frac{31}{14}$. From the Pythagorean Theorem, we result in $DE = \frac{25 \sqrt{2}}{14}$, so $a+b+c=25+2+14= \boxed{041}$

Also: $FG=\frac{20}{7}-\frac{5}{2}=\frac{5}{2}-\frac{15}{7}=\frac{5}{14}$. We can also use Ptolemy's Theorem on quadrilateral $DEFG$ to figure what $FG$ is in terms of $d$: $$DE\cdot FG+DG\cdot EF=DF\cdot EG$$ $$d\cdot FG+\frac{3d}{5}\cdot \frac{d}{\sqrt{2}}=\frac{4d}{5}\cdot \frac{d}{\sqrt{2}}$$ $$d\cdot FG+\frac{3d^2}{5\sqrt{2}}=\frac{4d^2}{5\sqrt{2}}\implies FG=\frac{d}{5\sqrt{2}}$$ Thus $\frac{d}{5\sqrt{2}}=\frac{5}{14}\rightarrow d=5\sqrt{2}\cdot\frac{5}{14}=\frac{25\sqrt{2}}{14}$. $a+b+c=25+2+14= \boxed{041}$

### Solution 3

Call $DE=x$ and as a result $DF=EF=\frac{x\sqrt{2}}{2}, EG=\frac{4x}{5}, GD=\frac{3x}{5}$. Since $EFGD$ is cyclic we just need to get $DG$ and using LoS(for more detail see the $2$nd paragraph of Solution $2$) we get $AG=\frac{5}{2}$ and using a similar argument(use LoS again) and subtracting you get $FG=\frac{5}{14}$ so you can use Ptolemy to get $x=\frac{25\sqrt{2}}{14} \implies \boxed{041}$. ~First

## Solution 4

See inside the $\triangle DEF$, we can find that $AG>AF$ since if $AG, we can see that Ptolemy Theorem inside cyclic quadrilateral $EFGD$ doesn't work. Now let's see when $AG>AF$, since $\frac{DG}{EG} = \frac{3}{4}$, we can assume that $EG=4x;GD=3x;ED=5x$, since we know $EF=FD$ so $\triangle EFD$ is isosceles right triangle. We can denote $DF=EF=\frac{5x\sqrt{2}}{2}$.Applying Ptolemy Theorem inside the cyclic quadrilateral $EFGD$ we can get the length of $FG$ can be represented as $\frac{x\sqrt{2}}{2}$. After observing, we can see $\angle AFE=\angle EDG$, whereas $\angle A=\angle EDG$ so we can see $\triangle AEF$ is isosceles triangle. Since $\triangle ABC$ is a $3-4-5$ triangle so we can directly know that the length of AF can be written in the form of $3x\sqrt{2}$. Denoting a point $J$ on side $AC$ with that $DJ$ is perpendicular to side $AC$. Now with the same reason, we can see that $\triangle DJG$ is a isosceles right triangle, so we can get $GJ=\frac{3x\sqrt{2}}{2}$ while the segment $CJ$ is $2x\sqrt{2}$ since its 3-4-5 again. Now adding all those segments together we can find that $AC=5=7x\sqrt{2}$ and $x=\frac{5\sqrt{2}}{14}$ and the desired $ED=5x=\frac{25\sqrt{2}}{14}$ which our answer is $\boxed{041}$ ~bluesoul

## Solution 5

The main element of the solution is the proof that $BF$ is bisector of $\angle B.$

Let $O$ be the midpoint of $DE.$ $\angle EBF = 90^\circ \implies$

$O$ is the center of the circle $BDGFE.$ $\angle EOF = 90^\circ \implies \overset{\Large\frown} {EF} = 90^\circ \implies \angle EBF = 45^\circ \implies$ BF is bisector of $\angle ABC\implies BF = \frac {2AB \cdot BC}{AB+BC} \cos 45^\circ =\frac {12 \cdot \sqrt{2}}{7}.$ $$\angle EGD = 90^\circ, \frac {EG}{GD}=\frac{4}{3} \implies$$ $$\angle GED = \angle GCD =\gamma \implies \overset{\Large\frown} {DG} = 2\gamma.$$ $$2\angle ACB = \overset{\Large\frown} {BEF} - \overset{\Large\frown} {DG} \implies \overset{\Large\frown} {BEF} = 4 \gamma \implies$$ $$\angle BOF = 4 \gamma \implies \angle OBF = \angle OFB = 90^\circ – 2 \gamma.$$ Let $BO = EO = DO = r \implies BF = 2 r \cos(90^\circ – 2\gamma) =$ $$=2 r \sin 2\gamma = 4r \sin \gamma \cdot \cos \gamma = 4 r\cdot \frac {3}{5} \cdot \frac {4}{5} = \frac {48}{25} = \frac {12 \cdot \sqrt{2}}{7}\implies$$ $$r = \frac {25 \cdot \sqrt{2}}{28}\implies ED = 2r = \frac {25 \cdot \sqrt{2}}{14}\implies \boxed{\textbf{041}}.$$ vladimir.shelomovskii@gmail.com, vvsss

## Solution 6

The main element of the solution is the proof that $G$ is midpoint of $AC.$

As in Solution 5 we get $\angle GED = \angle DBG =\gamma \implies$

$\triangle BCG$ is isosceles triangle with $BG=CG.$

Similarly $BG = AG \implies AG = CG = BG = \frac {AC}{2} =\frac {5}{2}.$

$$\overset{\Large\frown} {FG} = 90^\circ – \overset{\Large\frown} {GD} = 90^\circ – 2\gamma \implies$$ $$\overset{\Large\frown} {BFG} = 4\gamma + 90^\circ – 2\gamma = 90^\circ + 2\gamma \implies$$ $$\angle BOG = 90^\circ + 2\gamma \implies \angle BGO = \angle GBO = 45^\circ - \gamma.$$ Let $\hspace{10mm} BO = EO = DO = r \implies$ $$BG = 2 r \cos(45^\circ – \gamma) = 2 r (\sin \gamma + \cos \gamma)\frac {\sqrt {2}}{2} =$$ $$r \biggl(\frac {3}{5} + \frac {4}{5}\biggr) \sqrt {2} = r \frac {7 \sqrt{2}}{5} = \frac {5}{2}\implies$$ $$r = \frac {25 \cdot \sqrt{2}}{28}\implies ED = \frac {25 \cdot \sqrt{2}}{14}\implies \boxed{\textbf{041}}.$$ vladimir.shelomovskii@gmail.com, vvsss

## Solution 7

Let $(BEFGD) = \omega$. By Incenter-Excenter(Fact $5$), $F$ is the angle bisector of $\angle B$. Then by Ratio Lemma we have $$\frac{AG}{CG} = \frac{\sin(ABG)}{\sin(CBG)} \cdot \frac{AB}{BC} = \frac{\sin(GDE)}{\sin(DEG)} \cdot \frac{3}{4} = 1$$ Thus, $G$ is the midpoint of $AC$.

We can calculate $AF$ and $CF$ to be $\frac{15}{7}$ and $\frac{20}{7}$ respectively. And then by Power of a Point, we have $\newline$ $$\operatorname{Pow}_{\omega}(A) = AE \cdot AB = AF \cdot AG \implies AE = \frac{25}{14}$$ And then similarly, we have $CD = AE = \frac{25}{14}$. $\newline$

Then $EB = \frac{17}{14}$ and $DB = \frac{31}{14}$ and by Pythagorean we have $DE = \frac{25\sqrt{2}}{14}$, so our answer is $\boxed{\textbf{041}}.$

~dolphinday

## Video Solution by mop 2024

~r00tsOfUnity

 2014 AIME I (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) Preceded byProblem 14 Followed byLast Question 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 All AIME Problems and Solutions