# 2021 AIME II Problems/Problem 12

## Problem

A convex quadrilateral has area $30$ and side lengths $5, 6, 9,$ and $7,$ in that order. Denote by $\theta$ the measure of the acute angle formed by the diagonals of the quadrilateral. Then $\tan \theta$ can be written in the form $\tfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m + n$.

## Solution 1 (Sines and Cosines)

Since we are asked to find $\tan \theta$, we can find $\sin \theta$ and $\cos \theta$ separately and use their values to get $\tan \theta$. We can start by drawing a diagram. Let the vertices of the quadrilateral be $A$, $B$, $C$, and $D$. Let $AB = 5$, $BC = 6$, $CD = 9$, and $DA = 7$. Let $AX = a$, $BX = b$, $CX = c$, and $DX = d$. We know that $\theta$ is the acute angle formed between the intersection of the diagonals $AC$ and $BD$. $[asy] unitsize(4cm); pair A,B,C,D,X; A = (0,0); B = (1,0); C = (1.25,-1); D = (-0.75,-0.75); draw(A--B--C--D--cycle,black+1bp); X = intersectionpoint(A--C,B--D); draw(A--C); draw(B--D); label("A",A,NW); label("B",B,NE); label("C",C,SE); label("D",D,SW); dot(X); label("X",X,S); label("5",(A+B)/2,N); label("6",(B+C)/2,E); label("9",(C+D)/2,S); label("7",(D+A)/2,W); label("\theta",X,2.5E); label("a",(A+X)/2,NE); label("b",(B+X)/2,NW); label("c",(C+X)/2,SW); label("d",(D+X)/2,SE); [/asy]$ We are given that the area of quadrilateral $ABCD$ is $30$. We can express this area using the areas of triangles $AXB$, $BXC$, $CXD$, and $DXA$. Since we want to find $\sin \theta$ and $\cos \theta$, we can represent these areas using $\sin \theta$ as follows: \begin{align*} 30 &=[ABCD] \\ &=[AXB] + [BXC] + [CXD] + [DXA] \\ &=\frac{1}{2} ab \sin (\angle AXB) + \frac{1}{2} bc \sin (\angle BXC) + \frac{1}{2} cd \sin (\angle CXD) + \frac{1}{2} da \sin (\angle AXD) \\ &=\frac{1}{2} ab \sin (180^\circ - \theta) + \frac{1}{2} bc \sin (\theta) + \frac{1}{2} cd \sin (180^\circ - \theta) + \frac{1}{2} da \sin (\theta). \end{align*} We know that $\sin (180^\circ - \theta) = \sin \theta$. Therefore it follows that: \begin{align*} 30 &=\frac{1}{2} ab \sin (180^\circ - \theta) + \frac{1}{2} bc \sin (\theta) + \frac{1}{2} cd \sin (180^\circ - \theta) + \frac{1}{2} da \sin (\theta) \\ &=\frac{1}{2} ab \sin (\theta) + \frac{1}{2} bc \sin (\theta) + \frac{1}{2} cd \sin (\theta) + \frac{1}{2} da \sin (\theta) \\ &=\frac{1}{2}\sin\theta (ab + bc + cd + da). \end{align*} From here we see that $\sin \theta = \frac{60}{ab + bc + cd + da}$. Now we need to find $\cos \theta$. Using the Law of Cosines on each of the four smaller triangles, we get following equations: \begin{align*} 5^2 &= a^2 + b^2 - 2ab\cos(180^\circ-\theta), \\ 6^2 &= b^2 + c^2 - 2bc\cos \theta, \\ 9^2 &= c^2 + d^2 - 2cd\cos(180^\circ-\theta), \\ 7^2 &= d^2 + a^2 - 2da\cos \theta. \end{align*} We know that $\cos (180^\circ - \theta) = -\cos \theta$ for all $\theta$. We can substitute this value into our equations to get: \begin{align*} 5^2 &= a^2 + b^2 + 2ab\cos \theta, &&(1) \\ 6^2 &= b^2 + c^2 - 2bc\cos \theta, &&(2) \\ 9^2 &= c^2 + d^2 + 2cd\cos \theta, &&(3) \\ 7^2 &= d^2 + a^2 - 2da\cos \theta. &&(4) \end{align*} If we subtract $(2)+(4)$ from $(1)+(3)$, the squared terms cancel, leaving us with: \begin{align*} 5^2 + 9^2 - 6^2 - 7^2 &= 2ab \cos \theta + 2bc \cos \theta + 2cd \cos \theta + 2da \cos \theta \\ 21 &= 2\cos \theta (ab + bc + cd + da). \end{align*} From here we see that $\cos \theta = \frac{21/2}{ab + bc + cd + da}$.

Since we have figured out $\sin \theta$ and $\cos \theta$, we can calculate $\tan \theta$: $$\tan \theta = \frac{\sin \theta}{\cos \theta} = \frac{\frac{60}{ab + bc + cd + da}}{\frac{21/2}{ab + bc + cd + da}} = \frac{60}{21/2} = \frac{120}{21} = \frac{40}{7}.$$ Therefore our answer is $40 + 7 = \boxed{047}$.

~ Steven Chen (www.professorchenedu.com)

~ my_aops_lessons

## Solution 2 (Right Triangles)

In convex quadrilateral $ABCD,$ let $AB=5,BC=6,CD=9,$ and $DA=7.$ Let $A'$ and $C'$ be the feet of the perpendiculars from $A$ and $C,$ respectively, to $\overline{BD}.$ We obtain the following diagram: $[asy] /* Made by MRENTHUSIASM */ size(500); pair A, B, C, D, P, A1, C1; B = origin; D = (3*sqrt(32498*(29400*sqrt(47)+312523))/32498,0); A = intersectionpoints(Circle(B,5),Circle(D,7))[0]; C = intersectionpoints(Circle(B,6),Circle(D,9))[1]; P = intersectionpoint(A--C,B--D); A1 = foot(A,B,D); C1 = foot(C,B,D); markscalefactor=3/160; draw(rightanglemark(A,A1,D),red); draw(rightanglemark(C,C1,B),red); dot("A",A,1.5*dir(aCos(7/sqrt(1649)))); dot("B",B,1.5*W); dot("C",C,1.5*dir(180+aCos(7/sqrt(1649)))); dot("D",D,1.5*E); dot("E",P,dir(180-(180-aCos(7/sqrt(1649)))/2)); dot("A'",A1,dir(-75)); dot("C'",C1,N); label("\theta",P,dir(180+aCos(7/sqrt(1649))/2),red); draw(A--A1^^C--C1,dashed); draw(A--B--C--D--cycle^^A--C^^B--D); [/asy]$ Let $BC'=p,C'E=q,EA'=r,A'D=s,AA'=h_1,$ and $CC'=h_2.$ We apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles $\triangle ABA',\triangle BCC',\triangle CDC',$ and $\triangle DAA',$ respectively: $$\begin{array}{ccccccccccccccccc} (p+q+r)^2&+&h_1^2&=&5^2, &&&&&&&&&&&&\hspace{36mm}(1) \\ [1ex] p^2&+&h_2^2&=&6^2, &&&&&&&&&&&&\hspace{36mm}(2) \\ [1ex] (q+r+s)^2&+&h_2^2&=&9^2, &&&&&&&&&&&&\hspace{36mm}(3) \\ [1ex] s^2&+&h_1^2&=&7^2. &&&&&&&&&&&&\hspace{36mm}(4) \end{array}$$ Let the brackets denote areas. We get \begin{align*} [ABD]+[CBD]&=[ABCD] \\ \frac12(p+q+r+s)h_1+\frac12(p+q+r+s)h_2&=30 \\ \frac12(p+q+r+s)(h_1+h_2)&=30 \\ (p+q+r+s)(h_1+h_2)&=60. \hspace{49.25mm}(5) \end{align*} We subtract $(2)+(4)$ from $(1)+(3):$ \begin{align*} (p+q+r)^2+(q+r+s)^2-p^2-s^2&=21 \\ \left[(p+q+r)^2-s^2\right]+\left[(q+r+s)^2-p^2\right]&=21 \\ (p+q+r+s)(p+q+r-s)+(p+q+r+s)(-p+q+r+s)&=21 \\ (p+q+r+s)(2q+2r)&=21 \\ 2(p+q+r+s)(q+r)&=21 \\ (p+q+r+s)(q+r)&=\frac{21}{2}. \hspace{9.5mm}(6) \end{align*} From right triangles $\triangle AEA'$ and $\triangle CEC',$ we have $\tan\theta=\frac{h_1}{r}=\frac{h_2}{q}.$ It follows that \begin{alignat*}{8} \tan\theta&=\frac{h_1}{r}\qquad&\implies\qquad h_1&=r\tan\theta, \hspace{64mm}&(1\star)\\ \tan\theta&=\frac{h_2}{q}\qquad&\implies\qquad h_2&=q\tan\theta. &(2\star) \end{alignat*} Finally, we divide $(5)$ by $(6):$ \begin{align*} \frac{h_1+h_2}{q+r}&=\frac{40}{7} \\ \frac{r\tan\theta+q\tan\theta}{q+r}&=\frac{40}{7} \hspace{15mm} &&\text{by }(1\star)\text{ and }(2\star)\\ \frac{(r+q)\tan\theta}{q+r}&=\frac{40}{7} \\ \tan\theta&=\frac{40}{7}, \end{align*} from which the answer is $40+7=\boxed{047}.$

~MRENTHUSIASM

## Solution 3 (Bretschneider's Formula)

### Bretschneider's Formula

$[asy] size(200); import olympiad; defaultpen(linewidth(0.8)+fontsize(10)); pair A,B,C,D; A=origin; B=(1.25,0); D=dir(65); C=D+0.85*dir(90)*(A-D); draw(A--B--C--D--cycle); draw(A--C^^B--D, gray+0.5); dot("A", A, SW); dot("B", B, SE); dot("C", C, NE); dot("D",D,NW); label("a", A--B, S); label("b", B--C, E); label("c", D--C, N); label("d",D--A,W); label("u",D--B,2*dir(170)); label("v",A--C,S); [/asy]$ Given quadrilateral $ABCD$, let, $a, b, c, d$, be the sides, $s$ the semiperimeter, and $u, v$, the diagonals. Then the area, $K$, is given by $$K = \tfrac 14 \sqrt {4u^2v^2-(b^2+d^2-a^2-c^2)^2}$$

### Solution

By Bretschneider's Formula, $$30=\tfrac{1}{4}\sqrt{4u^2v^2-(b^2+d^2-a^2-c^2)^2}=\tfrac{1}{4}\sqrt{4u^2v^2-441}.$$ Thus, $uv=3\sqrt{1649}$. Also, $$[ABCD]=\tfrac 12 \cdot uv\sin{\theta};$$ solving for $\sin{\theta}$ yields $\sin{\theta}=\tfrac{40}{\sqrt{1649}}$. Since $\theta$ is acute, $\cos{\theta}$ is positive, from which $\cos{\theta}=\tfrac{7}{\sqrt{1649}}$. Solving for $\tan{\theta}$ yields $$\tan{\theta}=\frac{\sin{\theta}}{\cos{\theta}}=\frac{40}{7},$$ for a final answer of $\boxed{047}$.

~ Leo.Euler

## Solution 4 (Symmetry)

Claim

Given an inscribed quadrilateral $ABCD$ with sides $AB = a, BC = b, CD = c,$ and $DA = d.$ Prove that the $\angle \theta < 90^\circ$ between the diagonals is given by \begin{align*}2(ac + bd) \cos \theta = {|d^2 – c^2 + b^2 – a^2|}.\end{align*} Proof

Let the point $B'$ be symmetric to $B$ with respect to the perpendicular bisector $AC.$ Then the quadrilateral $AB'CD$ is an inscribed one, $AB' = b, B'C = a.$

$$2 \angle AEB = \overset{\Large\frown} {AB} + \overset{\Large\frown} {CD}.$$ \begin{align*} 2\angle B'AD = \overset{\Large\frown} {B'C} + \overset{\Large\frown} {CD} = \overset{\Large\frown} {AB} + \overset{\Large\frown} {CD} \implies \angle AEB = \angle B'AD.\end{align*}

We apply the Law of Cosines to $\triangle AB'D$ and $\triangle CB'D$: \begin{align*} B'D^2 = AD^2 + AB'^2 – 2 AD \cdot AB' \cos \theta, \end{align*} \begin{align*} B'D^2 = CD^2 + CB'^2 + 2 CD \cdot CB' \cos \theta,\end{align*} \begin{align*} d^2 + b^2 – 2 bd \cos \theta = c^2 + a^2 + 2ac \cos \theta,\end{align*} \begin{align*} 2(ac + bd) \cos \theta = |d^2 – c^2 + b^2 – a^2|.\end{align*}

## Note 1

By generalization, the tangent of the acute angle formed by the diagonals is $$\left|\frac{4A}{a^2-b^2+c^2-d^2}\right|.$$

~r00tsOfUnity

~Interstigation