# 2021 Fall AMC 12B Problems/Problem 12

## Problem

For $n$ a positive integer, let $f(n)$ be the quotient obtained when the sum of all positive divisors of $n$ is divided by $n.$ For example, $$f(14)=(1+2+7+14)\div 14=\frac{12}{7}$$ What is $f(768)-f(384)?$ $\textbf{(A)}\ \frac{1}{768} \qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \frac{1}{192} \qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 1 \qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \frac{4}{3} \qquad\textbf{(E)}\ \frac{8}{3}$

## Solution 1

The prime factorizations of $768$ and $384$ are $2^8\cdot3$ and $2^7\cdot3,$ respectively. Note that $f(n)$ is the sum of all fractions of the form $\frac 1d,$ where $d$ is a positive divisor of $n.$ By geometric series, it follows that \begin{alignat*}{8} f(768)&=\left(\sum_{k=0}^{8}\frac{1}{2^k}\right)+\left(\sum_{k=0}^{8}\frac{1}{2^k\cdot3}\right)&&=\frac{511}{256}+\frac{511}{768}&&=\frac{2044}{768}, \\ f(384)&=\left(\sum_{k=0}^{7}\frac{1}{2^k}\right)+\left(\sum_{k=0}^{7}\frac{1}{2^k\cdot3}\right)&&=\frac{255}{128}+\frac{255}{384}&&=\frac{1020}{384}. \end{alignat*} Therefore, the answer is $f(768)-f(384)=\boxed{\textbf{(B)}\ \frac{1}{192}}.$

~lopkiloinm ~MRENTHUSIASM

## Solution 2

The prime factorization of $384$ is $2^7\cdot3,$ so each of its positive divisors is of the form $2^m$ or $2^m\cdot3$ for some integer $m$ such that $0\leq m\leq7.$ We will use this fact to calculate the sum of all its positive divisors. Note that $$2^m + 2^m\cdot3 = 2^m\cdot(1+3) = 2^m\cdot4 = 2^m\cdot2^2 = 2^{m+2}$$ is the sum of the two forms of positive divisors for all such $m.$ By geometric series, the sum of all positive divisors of $384$ is $$\sum_{k=2}^{9}2^k = \frac{2^{10}-2^2}{2-1} = 1020,$$ from which $f(384) = \frac{1020}{384}.$ Similarly, since the prime factorization of $768$ is $2^8 \cdot 3,$ we have $f(768) = \frac{2044}{768}.$

Therefore, the answer is $f(768)-f(384)=\boxed{\textbf{(B)}\ \frac{1}{192}}.$

~mahaler

## Solution 3

Let $\sigma(n)$ denotes the sum of all positive divisors of $n,$ so $f(n)=\sigma(n)\div n.$

Suppose that $n=\prod_{i=1}^{k}p_i^{e_i}$ is the prime factorization of $n.$ Since $\sigma(n)$ is multiplicative, we have $$\sigma(n)=\sigma\left(\prod_{i=1}^{k}p_i^{e_i}\right)=\prod_{i=1}^{k}\sigma\left(p_i^{e_i}\right)=\prod_{i=1}^{k}\left(\sum_{j=0}^{e_i}p_i^j\right)=\prod_{i=1}^{k}\frac{p_i^{e_i+1}-1}{p_i-1}$$ by geometric series.

The prime factorizations of $768$ and $384$ are $2^8\cdot3$ and $2^7\cdot3,$ respectively. Note that \begin{alignat*}{8} f(768) &= \left(\frac{2^9-1}{2-1}\cdot\frac{3^2-1}{3-1}\right)\div768 &&= \frac{2044}{768}, \\ f(384) &= \left(\frac{2^8-1}{2-1}\cdot\frac{3^2-1}{3-1}\right)\div384 &&= \frac{1020}{384}. \end{alignat*} Therefore, the answer is $f(768)-f(384)=\boxed{\textbf{(B)}\ \frac{1}{192}}.$

~MRENTHUSIASM

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. 