Difference between revisions of "1983 AIME Problems/Problem 11"
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== Solutions == | == Solutions == | ||
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=== Solution 1 === | === Solution 1 === | ||
First, we find the height of the solid by dropping a perpendicular from the midpoint of <math>AD</math> to <math>EF</math>. The hypotenuse of the triangle formed is the [[median]] of equilateral triangle <math>ADE</math>, and one of the legs is <math>3\sqrt{2}</math>. We apply the Pythagorean Theorem to deduce that the height is <math>6</math>. | First, we find the height of the solid by dropping a perpendicular from the midpoint of <math>AD</math> to <math>EF</math>. The hypotenuse of the triangle formed is the [[median]] of equilateral triangle <math>ADE</math>, and one of the legs is <math>3\sqrt{2}</math>. We apply the Pythagorean Theorem to deduce that the height is <math>6</math>. | ||
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We can also find the volume by considering horizontal cross-sections of the solid and using calculus. As in Solution 1, we can find that the height of the solid is <math>6</math>; thus, we will integrate with respect to height from <math>0</math> to <math>6</math>, noting that each cross section of height <math>dh</math> is a rectangle. The volume is then <math>\int_0^h(wl) \ \text{d}h</math>, where <math>w</math> is the width of the rectangle and <math>l</math> is the length. We can express <math>w</math> in terms of <math>h</math> as <math>w=6\sqrt{2}-\sqrt{2}h</math> since it decreases linearly with respect to <math>h</math>, and <math>l=6\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{2}h</math> since it similarly increases linearly with respect to <math>h</math>. Now we solve:<cmath>\int_0^6(6\sqrt{2}-\sqrt{2}h)(6\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{2}h)\ \text{d}h =\int_0^6(72-2h^2)\ \text{d}h=72(6)-2\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)\left(6^3\right)=\boxed{288}</cmath>. | We can also find the volume by considering horizontal cross-sections of the solid and using calculus. As in Solution 1, we can find that the height of the solid is <math>6</math>; thus, we will integrate with respect to height from <math>0</math> to <math>6</math>, noting that each cross section of height <math>dh</math> is a rectangle. The volume is then <math>\int_0^h(wl) \ \text{d}h</math>, where <math>w</math> is the width of the rectangle and <math>l</math> is the length. We can express <math>w</math> in terms of <math>h</math> as <math>w=6\sqrt{2}-\sqrt{2}h</math> since it decreases linearly with respect to <math>h</math>, and <math>l=6\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{2}h</math> since it similarly increases linearly with respect to <math>h</math>. Now we solve:<cmath>\int_0^6(6\sqrt{2}-\sqrt{2}h)(6\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{2}h)\ \text{d}h =\int_0^6(72-2h^2)\ \text{d}h=72(6)-2\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)\left(6^3\right)=\boxed{288}</cmath>. | ||
+ | ==Solution 4== | ||
+ | Draw an altitude from a vertex of the square base to the top edge. By using <math>30,60, 90</math> triangle ratios, we obtain that the altitude has a lgenth of <math>3 \sqrt{6}</math>, and that little portion that hangs out has a length of <math>\3sqrt2</math>. This is a trianglular pyramid with a base of <math>3\sqrt6, 3\sqrt6, 3\sqrt2</math>, and a height of <math>\3sqrt{2}</math>. Since there are two of these, we can compute the sum of the volumes of these two to be <math>\72</math>. Now we are left with a triangular prism with a base of dimensions <math>3\sqrt6, 3\sqrt6, 3\sqrt2</math> and a height of <math>\6sqrt2</math>. We can compute the volume of this to be 216, and thus our answer is <math>\boxed{288}</math>. | ||
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+ | pi_is_3.141 | ||
== See Also == | == See Also == | ||
{{AIME box|year=1983|num-b=10|num-a=12}} | {{AIME box|year=1983|num-b=10|num-a=12}} | ||
[[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]] | [[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]] |
Revision as of 18:24, 31 May 2020
Problem
The solid shown has a square base of side length . The upper edge is parallel to the base and has length . All other edges have length . Given that , what is the volume of the solid?
Solutions
Solution 1
First, we find the height of the solid by dropping a perpendicular from the midpoint of to . The hypotenuse of the triangle formed is the median of equilateral triangle , and one of the legs is . We apply the Pythagorean Theorem to deduce that the height is .
Next, we complete the figure into a triangular prism, and find its volume, which is .
Now, we subtract off the two extra pyramids that we included, whose combined volume is .
Thus, our answer is .
Solution 2
Extend and to meet at , and and to meet at . Now, we have a regular tetrahedron , which by symmetry has twice the volume of our original solid. This tetrahedron has side length . Using the formula for the volume of a regular tetrahedron, which is , where S is the side length of the tetrahedron, the volume of our original solid is:
.
Solution 3
We can also find the volume by considering horizontal cross-sections of the solid and using calculus. As in Solution 1, we can find that the height of the solid is ; thus, we will integrate with respect to height from to , noting that each cross section of height is a rectangle. The volume is then , where is the width of the rectangle and is the length. We can express in terms of as since it decreases linearly with respect to , and since it similarly increases linearly with respect to . Now we solve:.
Solution 4
Draw an altitude from a vertex of the square base to the top edge. By using triangle ratios, we obtain that the altitude has a lgenth of , and that little portion that hangs out has a length of $\3sqrt2$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.). This is a trianglular pyramid with a base of , and a height of $\3sqrt{2}$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.). Since there are two of these, we can compute the sum of the volumes of these two to be $\72$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.). Now we are left with a triangular prism with a base of dimensions and a height of $\6sqrt2$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.). We can compute the volume of this to be 216, and thus our answer is .
pi_is_3.141
See Also
1983 AIME (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 10 |
Followed by Problem 12 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 | ||
All AIME Problems and Solutions |