1983 AIME Problems/Problem 15

Revision as of 10:34, 14 June 2012 by Pickten (talk | contribs) (Solution)

Problem

The adjoining figure shows two intersecting chords in a circle, with $B$ on minor arc $AD$. Suppose that the radius of the circle is $5$, that $BC=6$, and that $AD$ is bisected by $BC$. Suppose further that $AD$ is the only chord starting at $A$ which is bisected by $BC$. It follows that the sine of the minor arc $AB$ is a rational number. If this fraction is expressed as a fraction $\frac{m}{n}$ in lowest terms, what is the product $mn$?

1983 AIME-15.png

Solution

Let $A$ be any fixed point on circle $O$ and let $AD$ be a chord of circle $O$. The locus of midpoints $N$ of the chord $AD$ is a circle $P$, with diameter $AO$. Generally, the circle $P$ can intersect the chord $BC$ at two points, one point, or they may not have a point of intersection. By the problem condition, however, the circle $P$ is tangent to BC at point N.

Let M be the midpoint of the chord $BC$. From right triangle $OMB$, $OM = \sqrt{OB^2 - BM^2} =4$. Thus, $\tan \angle BOM = \frac{BM}{OM} = \frac 3 4$.

Notice that the distance $OM$ equals $PN + PO \cos AOM = r(1 + \cos AOM)$ (Where $r$ is the radius of circle P). Evaluating this, $\cos \angle AOM = \frac{OM}{r} - 1 = \frac{2OM}{R} - 1 = \frac 8 5 - 1 = \frac 3 5$. From $\cos \angle AOM$, we see that $\tan \angle AOM =\frac{\sqrt{1 - \cos^2 \angle AOM}}{\cos \angle AOM} = \frac{\sqrt{5^2 - 3^2}}{3} = \frac 4 3$

Next, notice that $\angle AOB = \angle AOM - \angle BOM$. We can therefore apply the tangent subtraction formula to obtain , $\tan AOB =\frac{\tan AOM - \tan BOM}{1 + \tan AOM \cdot \tan AOM} =\frac{\frac 4 3 - \frac 3 4}{1 + \frac 4 3 \cdot \frac 3 4} = \frac{7}{24}$. It follows that $\sin AOB =\frac{7}{\sqrt{7^2+24^2}} = \frac{7}{25}$, resulting in an answer of $7 \cdot 25=\boxed{175}$.

See Also

1983 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
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