Difference between revisions of "1997 AIME Problems/Problem 12"

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The [[function]] <math>f</math> defined by <math>f(x)= \frac{ax+b}{cx+d}</math>, where <math>a</math>,<math>b</math>,<math>c</math> and <math>d</math> are nonzero real numbers, has the properties <math>f(19)=19</math>, <math>f(97)=97</math> and <math>f(f(x))=x</math> for all values except <math>\frac{-d}{c}</math>. Find the unique number that is not in the range of <math>f</math>.
 
The [[function]] <math>f</math> defined by <math>f(x)= \frac{ax+b}{cx+d}</math>, where <math>a</math>,<math>b</math>,<math>c</math> and <math>d</math> are nonzero real numbers, has the properties <math>f(19)=19</math>, <math>f(97)=97</math> and <math>f(f(x))=x</math> for all values except <math>\frac{-d}{c}</math>. Find the unique number that is not in the range of <math>f</math>.
  
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__TOC__
 
== Solution ==
 
== Solution ==
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=== Solution 1 ===
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First, we use the fact that <math>f(f(x)) = x</math> for all <math>x</math> in the domain. Substituting the function definition, we have <math>{\frac {a\frac {ax + b}{cx + d} + b}{c\frac {ax + b}{cx + d} + d} = x}</math>, which reduces to <math>{\frac {(a^2 + bc)x + b(a + d)}{c(a + d)x + (bc + d^2)} = \frac {ex + f}{gx + h} = x}</math>. In order for this fraction to reduce to <math>x</math>, we must have <math>f = g = 0</math> and <math>e = h\not = 0</math>. From <math>c(a + d) = b(a + d) = 0</math>, we get <math>a = - d</math> or <math>b = c = 0</math>. The second cannot be true, since we are given that <math>a,b,c,d</math> are nonzero. This means <math>a = - d</math>, so <math>f(x) = \frac {ax + b}{cx - a}</math>.
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The only value that is not in the range of this function is <math>\lim_{x\to - d/c}f(x) = \frac {a}{c}</math>. To find <math>\frac {a}{c}</math>, we use the two values of the function given to us. We get <math>2(97)a + b = 97^2c</math> and <math>2(19)a + b = 19^2c</math>. Subtracting the second equation from the first will eliminate <math>b</math>, and this results in <math>2(97 - 19)a = (97^2 - 19^2)c</math>, so <math>{\frac {a}{c} = \frac {(97 - 19)(97 + 19)}{2(97 - 19)} = \boxed{058}</math>.
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=== Solution 2 ===
 
First, we note that <math>e = \frac ac</math> is the horizontal [[asymptote]] of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of <math>f</math> will be <math>e</math>. <math>\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}</math>. [[Without loss of generality]], let <math>c=1</math>, so the function becomes <math>\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e</math>.   
 
First, we note that <math>e = \frac ac</math> is the horizontal [[asymptote]] of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of <math>f</math> will be <math>e</math>. <math>\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}</math>. [[Without loss of generality]], let <math>c=1</math>, so the function becomes <math>\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e</math>.   
  
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\end{eqnarray*}</cmath>
 
\end{eqnarray*}</cmath>
  
Clearly we can discard the positive root, so <math>e = \box{58}</math>.
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Clearly we can discard the positive root, so <math>e = \boxed{58}</math>.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 21:35, 23 November 2007

Problem

The function $f$ defined by $f(x)= \frac{ax+b}{cx+d}$, where $a$,$b$,$c$ and $d$ are nonzero real numbers, has the properties $f(19)=19$, $f(97)=97$ and $f(f(x))=x$ for all values except $\frac{-d}{c}$. Find the unique number that is not in the range of $f$.

Solution

Solution 1

First, we use the fact that $f(f(x)) = x$ for all $x$ in the domain. Substituting the function definition, we have ${\frac {a\frac {ax + b}{cx + d} + b}{c\frac {ax + b}{cx + d} + d} = x}$, which reduces to ${\frac {(a^2 + bc)x + b(a + d)}{c(a + d)x + (bc + d^2)} = \frac {ex + f}{gx + h} = x}$. In order for this fraction to reduce to $x$, we must have $f = g = 0$ and $e = h\not = 0$. From $c(a + d) = b(a + d) = 0$, we get $a = - d$ or $b = c = 0$. The second cannot be true, since we are given that $a,b,c,d$ are nonzero. This means $a = - d$, so $f(x) = \frac {ax + b}{cx - a}$.

The only value that is not in the range of this function is $\lim_{x\to - d/c}f(x) = \frac {a}{c}$. To find $\frac {a}{c}$, we use the two values of the function given to us. We get $2(97)a + b = 97^2c$ and $2(19)a + b = 19^2c$. Subtracting the second equation from the first will eliminate $b$, and this results in $2(97 - 19)a = (97^2 - 19^2)c$, so ${\frac {a}{c} = \frac {(97 - 19)(97 + 19)}{2(97 - 19)} = \boxed{058}$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing } inserted.).

Solution 2

First, we note that $e = \frac ac$ is the horizontal asymptote of the function, and since this is a linear function over a linear function, the unique number not in the range of $f$ will be $e$. $\frac{ax+b}{cx+d} = \frac{b-\frac{cd}{a}}{cx+d} + \frac{a}{c}$. Without loss of generality, let $c=1$, so the function becomes $\frac{b- \frac{d}{a}}{x+d} + e$.

(Considering $\infty$ as a limit) By the given, $f(f(\infty)) = \infty$. $\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} f(x) = e$, so $f(e) = \infty$. $f(x) \rightarrow \infty$ as $x$ reaches the vertical asymptote, which is at $-\frac{d}{c} = -d$. Hence $e = -d$. Substituting the givens, we get

\begin{eqnarray*} 17 &=& \frac{b - \frac da}{17 - e} + e\\ 97 &=& \frac{b - \frac da}{97 - e} + e\\ b - \frac da &=& (17 - e)^2 = (97 - e)^2\\ 17 - e &=& \pm (97 - e) \end{eqnarray*}

Clearly we can discard the positive root, so $e = \boxed{58}$.

See also

1997 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 11
Followed by
Problem 13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions
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