1997 AIME Problems/Problem 14
By De Moivre's Theorem, we find that ()
Now, let be the root corresponding to , and let be the root corresponding to . The magnitude of is therefore:
We need . The cosine difference identity simplifies that to . Thus, .
Therefore, and cannot be more than away from each other. This means that for a given value of , there are values for that satisfy the inequality; of them , and of them . Since and must be distinct, can have possible values. Therefore, the probability is . The answer is then .
Without loss of generality, let Then
We want From what we just obtained, this is equivalent to This occurs when which is satisfied by (we don't include 0 because that corresponds to ). So out of the possible , work. Thus, So our answer is
We can solve a geometrical interpretation of this problem.
Without loss of generality, let . We are now looking for a point exactly one unit away from such that the point is at least units away from the origin. Note that the "boundary" condition is when the point will be exactly units away from the origin; these points will be the intersections of the circle centered at with radius and the circle centered at with radius . The equations of these circles are and . Solving for yields . Clearly, this means that the real part of is greater than . Solving, we note that possible s exist, meaning that . Therefore, the answer is .
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