2000 AIME II Problems/Problem 3

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Problem

A deck of forty cards consists of four $1$'s, four $2$'s,..., and four $10$'s. A matching pair (two cards with the same number) is removed from the deck. Given that these cards are not returned to the deck, let $m/n$ be the probability that two randomly selected cards also form a pair, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m + n.$

Solution

There are ${38 \choose 2} = 703$ ways we can draw two cards from the reduced deck. The two cards will form a pair if both are one of the nine numbers that were not removed, which can happen in $9{4 \choose 2} = 54$ ways, or if the two cards are the remaining two cards of the number that was removed, which can happen in $1$ way. Thus, the answer is $\frac{54+1}{703} = \frac{55}{703}$, and $m+n = \boxed{758}$.

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