Difference between revisions of "2012 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 13"

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==Problem==
 
==Problem==
  
Two parabolas have equations <math>y= x^2 + ax +b</math> and <math>y= x^2 + cx +d</math>, where <math>a, b, c,</math> and <math>d</math> are integers, each chosen independently by rolling a fair six-sided die. What is the probability that the parabolas will have a least one point in common?
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Two parabolas have equations <math>y= x^2 + ax +b</math> and <math>y= x^2 + cx +d</math>, where <math>a, b, c,</math> and <math>d</math> are integers, each chosen independently by rolling a fair six-sided die. What is the probability that the parabolas will have at least one point in common?
  
==Solution 1==
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<math>\textbf{(A)}\ \frac{1}{2}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \frac{25}{36}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \frac{5}{6}\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \frac{31}{36}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 1</math>
  
Set the two equations equal to each other: <math>x^2 + ax + b = x^2 + cx + d</math>. Now remove the x squared and get x's on one side: <math>ax-cx=d-b</math>. Now factor <math>x</math>: <math>x(a-c)=d-b</math>. If a cannot equal <math>c</math>, then there is always a solution, but if <math>a=c</math>, a <math>1</math> in <math>6</math> chance, leaving a <math>1080</math> out <math>1296</math>, always having at least one point in common. And if <math>a=c</math>, then the only way for that to work, is if <math>d=b</math>, a <math>1</math> in <math>36</math> chance, however, this can occur <math>6</math> ways, so a <math>1</math> in <math>6</math> chance of this happening. So adding one sixth to <math>\frac{1080}{1296}</math>, we get the simplified fraction of <math>3136</math>; answer <math>(D)</math>.
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==Solutions==
  
==Solution 2==
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===Solution 1===
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Set the two equations equal to each other: <math>x^2 + ax + b = x^2 + cx + d</math>. Now remove the x squared and get x's on one side: <math>ax-cx=d-b</math>. Now factor <math>x</math>: <math>x(a-c)=d-b</math>. If a cannot equal <math>c</math>, then there is always a solution, but if <math>a=c</math>, a <math>1</math> in <math>6</math> chance, leaving a <math>1080</math> out <math>1296</math>, always having at least one point in common. And if <math>a=c</math>, then the only way for that to work, is if <math>d=b</math>, a <math>1</math> in <math>36</math> chance, however, this can occur <math>6</math> ways, so a <math>1</math> in <math>6</math> chance of this happening. So adding one  thirty sixth to <math>\frac{1080}{1296}</math>, we get the simplified fraction of <math>\frac{31}{36}</math>; answer <math>\boxed{(D)}</math>.
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===Solution 2===
  
 
Proceed as above to obtain <math>x(a-c)=d-b</math>. The probability that the parabolas have at least 1 point in common is 1 minus the probability that they do not intersect. The equation <math>x(a-c)=d-b</math> has no solution if and only if <math>a=c</math> and <math>d\neq b</math>. The probability that <math>a=c</math> is <math>\frac{1}{6}</math> while the probability that <math>d\neq b</math> is <math>\frac{5}{6}</math>. Thus we have <math>1-\left(\frac{1}{6}\right)\left(\frac{5}{6}\right)=\frac{31}{36}</math> for the probability that the parabolas intersect.
 
Proceed as above to obtain <math>x(a-c)=d-b</math>. The probability that the parabolas have at least 1 point in common is 1 minus the probability that they do not intersect. The equation <math>x(a-c)=d-b</math> has no solution if and only if <math>a=c</math> and <math>d\neq b</math>. The probability that <math>a=c</math> is <math>\frac{1}{6}</math> while the probability that <math>d\neq b</math> is <math>\frac{5}{6}</math>. Thus we have <math>1-\left(\frac{1}{6}\right)\left(\frac{5}{6}\right)=\frac{31}{36}</math> for the probability that the parabolas intersect.
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== See Also ==
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{{AMC12 box|year=2012|ab=B|num-b=12|num-a=14}}
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{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 14:24, 7 August 2021

Problem

Two parabolas have equations $y= x^2 + ax +b$ and $y= x^2 + cx +d$, where $a, b, c,$ and $d$ are integers, each chosen independently by rolling a fair six-sided die. What is the probability that the parabolas will have at least one point in common?

$\textbf{(A)}\ \frac{1}{2}\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ \frac{25}{36}\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ \frac{5}{6}\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ \frac{31}{36}\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 1$

Solutions

Solution 1

Set the two equations equal to each other: $x^2 + ax + b = x^2 + cx + d$. Now remove the x squared and get x's on one side: $ax-cx=d-b$. Now factor $x$: $x(a-c)=d-b$. If a cannot equal $c$, then there is always a solution, but if $a=c$, a $1$ in $6$ chance, leaving a $1080$ out $1296$, always having at least one point in common. And if $a=c$, then the only way for that to work, is if $d=b$, a $1$ in $36$ chance, however, this can occur $6$ ways, so a $1$ in $6$ chance of this happening. So adding one thirty sixth to $\frac{1080}{1296}$, we get the simplified fraction of $\frac{31}{36}$; answer $\boxed{(D)}$.

Solution 2

Proceed as above to obtain $x(a-c)=d-b$. The probability that the parabolas have at least 1 point in common is 1 minus the probability that they do not intersect. The equation $x(a-c)=d-b$ has no solution if and only if $a=c$ and $d\neq b$. The probability that $a=c$ is $\frac{1}{6}$ while the probability that $d\neq b$ is $\frac{5}{6}$. Thus we have $1-\left(\frac{1}{6}\right)\left(\frac{5}{6}\right)=\frac{31}{36}$ for the probability that the parabolas intersect.

See Also

2012 AMC 12B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 12
Followed by
Problem 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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