Difference between revisions of "2013 AIME II Problems/Problem 14"

(The Pattern)
(The Proof)
 
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For positive integers <math>n</math> and <math>k</math>, let <math>f(n, k)</math> be the remainder when <math>n</math> is divided by <math>k</math>, and for <math>n > 1</math> let <math>F(n) = \max_{\substack{1\le k\le \frac{n}{2}}} f(n, k)</math>. Find the remainder when <math>\sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} F(n)</math> is divided by <math>1000</math>.
 
For positive integers <math>n</math> and <math>k</math>, let <math>f(n, k)</math> be the remainder when <math>n</math> is divided by <math>k</math>, and for <math>n > 1</math> let <math>F(n) = \max_{\substack{1\le k\le \frac{n}{2}}} f(n, k)</math>. Find the remainder when <math>\sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} F(n)</math> is divided by <math>1000</math>.
  
==Solutions==
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==Solution==
  
 
===The Pattern===
 
===The Pattern===
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<math>100\equiv 32 \pmod{34}</math>
 
<math>100\equiv 32 \pmod{34}</math>
  
So the sum is <math>6+3\times(6+...+31)+31+32=1512</math>, so the answer is <math>\boxed{512}</math>.
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So the sum is <math>5+3\times(6+...+31)+32+32=1512</math>, so the answer is <math>\boxed{512}</math>.
 
By: Kris17
 
By: Kris17
  
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Consider the case where <math>x = 3k</math>. We shall prove that <math>F(x) = f(x, k+1)</math>.
 
Consider the case where <math>x = 3k</math>. We shall prove that <math>F(x) = f(x, k+1)</math>.
For all <math>x/2\geq n > k+1, x = 2n + q</math>, where <math>0\leq q\leq n</math>. This is because <math>x > 3k + 3 = 3n</math> and <math>x < n</math>. Also, as n increases, <math>q</math> decreases. Thus, <math>q = f(x, n) < f(x, k+1) = k - 2</math> for all <math>n > k+1</math>.
+
For all <math>x/2\ge n > k+1, x = 2n + q</math>, where <math>0\le q< n</math>. This is because <math>x < 3k + 3 < 3n</math> and <math>x \ge 2n</math>. Also, as <math>n</math> increases, <math>q</math> decreases. Thus, <math>q = f(x, n) < f(x, k+1) = k - 2</math> for all <math>n > k+1</math>.
 
Consider all <math>n < k+1. f(x, k) = 0</math> and <math>f(x, k-1) = 3</math>. Also, <math>0 < f(x, k-2) < k-2</math>. Thus, for <math>k > 5, f(x, k+1) > f(x, n)</math> for <math>n < k+1</math>.
 
Consider all <math>n < k+1. f(x, k) = 0</math> and <math>f(x, k-1) = 3</math>. Also, <math>0 < f(x, k-2) < k-2</math>. Thus, for <math>k > 5, f(x, k+1) > f(x, n)</math> for <math>n < k+1</math>.
  

Latest revision as of 06:09, 16 September 2022

Problem 14

For positive integers $n$ and $k$, let $f(n, k)$ be the remainder when $n$ is divided by $k$, and for $n > 1$ let $F(n) = \max_{\substack{1\le k\le \frac{n}{2}}} f(n, k)$. Find the remainder when $\sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} F(n)$ is divided by $1000$.

Solution

The Pattern

We can find that

$20\equiv 6 \pmod{7}$

$21\equiv 5 \pmod{8}$

$22\equiv 6 \pmod{8}$

$23\equiv 7 \pmod{8}$

$24\equiv 6 \pmod{9}$

$25\equiv 7 \pmod{9}$

$26\equiv 8 \pmod{9}$

Observing these and we can find that the reminders are in groups of three continuous integers, considering this is true, and we get

$99\equiv 31 \pmod{34}$

$100\equiv 32 \pmod{34}$

So the sum is $5+3\times(6+...+31)+32+32=1512$, so the answer is $\boxed{512}$. By: Kris17

The Intuition

First, let's see what happens if we remove a restriction. Let's define $G(x)$ as

$G(x):=\max_{\substack{1\le k}} f(n, k)$

Now, if you set $k$ as any number greater than $n$, you get n, obviously the maximum possible. That's too much freedom; let's restrict it a bit. Hence $H(x)$ is defined as

$H(x):=\max_{\substack{1\le k\le n}} f(n, k)$

Now, after some thought, we find that if we set $k=\lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor+1$ we get a remainder of $\lfloor \frac{n-1}{2} \rfloor$, the max possible. Once we have gotten this far, it is easy to see that the original equation,

$F(n) = \max_{\substack{1\le k\le \frac{n}{2}}} f(n, k)$

has a solution with $k=\lfloor \frac{n}{3} \rfloor+1$.

$W^5$~Rowechen

The Proof

The solution presented above does not prove why $F(x)$ is found by dividing $x$ by $3$. Indeed, that is the case, as rigorously shown below.

Consider the case where $x = 3k$. We shall prove that $F(x) = f(x, k+1)$. For all $x/2\ge n > k+1, x = 2n + q$, where $0\le q< n$. This is because $x < 3k + 3 < 3n$ and $x \ge 2n$. Also, as $n$ increases, $q$ decreases. Thus, $q = f(x, n) < f(x, k+1) = k - 2$ for all $n > k+1$. Consider all $n < k+1. f(x, k) = 0$ and $f(x, k-1) = 3$. Also, $0 < f(x, k-2) < k-2$. Thus, for $k > 5, f(x, k+1) > f(x, n)$ for $n < k+1$.

Similar proofs apply for $x = 3k + 1$ and $x = 3k + 2$. The reader should feel free to derive these proofs themself.

Generalized Solution

$Lemma:$ Highest remainder when $n$ is divided by $1\leq k\leq n/2$ is obtained for $k_0 = (n + (3 - n \pmod{3}))/3$ and the remainder thus obtained is $(n - k_0*2) = [(n - 6)/3 + (2/3)*n \pmod{3}]$.

$Note:$ This is the second highest remainder when $n$ is divided by $1\leq k\leq n$ and the highest remainder occurs when $n$ is divided by $k_M$ = $(n+1)/2$ for odd $n$ and $k_M$ = $(n+2)/2$ for even $n$.

Using the lemma above:

$\sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} F(n) = \sum\limits_{n=20}^{100} [(n - 6)/3 + (2/3)*n \pmod{3}]$ $= [(120*81/2)/3 - 2*81 + (2/3)*81] = 1512$

So the answer is $\boxed{512}$

Proof of Lemma: It is similar to $The Proof$ stated above.

Kris17

See Also

2013 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 13
Followed by
Problem 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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