2018 AIME II Problems/Problem 14

Revision as of 08:17, 26 March 2018 by Vfire (talk | contribs) (Solution 2 (Projective))

Problem

The incircle $\omega$ of triangle $ABC$ is tangent to $\overline{BC}$ at $X$. Let $Y \neq X$ be the other intersection of $\overline{AX}$ with $\omega$. Points $P$ and $Q$ lie on $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$, respectively, so that $\overline{PQ}$ is tangent to $\omega$ at $Y$. Assume that $AP = 3$, $PB = 4$, $AC = 8$, and $AQ = \dfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.


Solution 1

Let sides $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$ be tangent to $\omega$ at $Z$ and $W$, respectively. Let $\alpha = \angle BAX$ and $\beta = \angle AXC$. Because $\overline{PQ}$ and $\overline{BC}$ are both tangent to $\omega$ and $\angle YXC$ and $\angle QYX$ subtend the same arc of $\omega$, it follows that $\angle AYP = \angle QYX = \angle YXC = \beta$. By equal tangents, $PZ = PY$. Applying the Law of Sines to $\triangle APY$ yields \[\frac{AZ}{AP} = 1 + \frac{ZP}{AP} = 1 + \frac{PY}{AP} = 1 + \frac{\sin\alpha}{\sin\beta}.\]Similarly, applying the Law of Sines to $\triangle ABX$ gives \[\frac{AZ}{AB} = 1 - \frac{BZ}{AB} = 1 - \frac{BX}{AB} = 1 - \frac{\sin\alpha}{\sin\beta}.\]It follows that \[2 = \frac{AZ}{AP} + \frac{AZ}{AB} = \frac{AZ}3 + \frac{AZ}7,\]implying $AZ = \tfrac{21}5$. Applying the same argument to $\triangle AQY$ yields \[2 = \frac{AW}{AQ} + \frac{AW}{AC} = \frac{AZ}{AQ} + \frac{AZ}{AC} = \frac{21}5\left(\frac{1}{AQ} + \frac 18\right),\]from which $AQ = \tfrac{168}{59}$. The requested sum is $168 + 59 = \boxed{227}$.

Solution 2 (Projective)

Let the incircle of $ABC$ be tangent to $AB$ and $AC$ at $M$ and $N$. By Brianchon's theorem on tangential hexagons $QNCBMP$ and $PYQCXB$, we know that $MN,CP,BQ$ and $XY$ are concurrent at a point $O$. Let $PQ \cap BC = Z$. Then by La Hire's $A$ lies on the polar of $Z$ so $Z$ lies on the polar of $A$. Therefore, $MN$ also passes through $Z$. Then projecting through $Z$, we have \[-1 = (A,O;Y,X) \stackrel{Z}{=} (A,M;P,B) \stackrel{Z}{=} (A,N;Q,C).\]Therefore, $\frac{AP \cdot MB}{MP \cdot AB} = 1 \implies \frac{3 \cdot MB}{MP \cdot 7} = 1$. Since $MB+MP=4$ we know that $MB = \frac{6}{5}$ and $MB = \frac{14}{5}$. Therefore, $AN = AM = \frac{21}{5}$ and $NC = 8 - \frac{21}{5} = \frac{19}{5}$. Since $(A,N;Q,C) = -1$, we also have $\frac{AQ \cdot NC}{NQ \cdot AC} = 1 \implies \frac{AQ \cdot \tfrac{19}{5}}{(\tfrac{21}{5} - AQ) \cdot 8} = 1$. Solving for $AQ$, we obtain $AQ = \frac{168}{59} \implies m+n = \boxed{227}$. -Vfire

2018 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 13
Followed by
Problem 15
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