Difference between revisions of "2020 AIME I Problems/Problem 14"
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− | Let the roots of <math>P(x)</math> be <math>m</math> and <math>n</math>, then we can write <math>P(x)=x^2-(m+n)x+mn</math>. The fact that <math>P(P(x))=0</math> has solutions <math>x=3,4,a,b</math> implies that some combination of <math>2</math> of these are the solution to <math>P(x)=m</math>, and the other <math>2</math> are the solution to <math>P(x)=n</math>. It's fairly easy to see there are only <math>2</math> possible such groupings: <math>P(3)=P(4)=m</math> and <math>P(a)=P(b)=n</math>, or <math>P(3)=P(a)=m</math> and <math>P(4)=P(b)=n</math> (Note that <math>a,b</math> are interchangeable, and so are <math>m</math> and <math>n</math>). We now | + | Let the roots of <math>P(x)</math> be <math>m</math> and <math>n</math>, then we can write <math>P(x)=x^2-(m+n)x+mn</math>. The fact that <math>P(P(x))=0</math> has solutions <math>x=3,4,a,b</math> implies that some combination of <math>2</math> of these are the solution to <math>P(x)=m</math>, and the other <math>2</math> are the solution to <math>P(x)=n</math>. It's fairly easy to see there are only <math>2</math> possible such groupings: <math>P(3)=P(4)=m</math> and <math>P(a)=P(b)=n</math>, or <math>P(3)=P(a)=m</math> and <math>P(4)=P(b)=n</math> (Note that <math>a,b</math> are interchangeable, and so are <math>m</math> and <math>n</math>). We now casework: |
If <math>P(3)=P(4)=m</math>, then | If <math>P(3)=P(4)=m</math>, then | ||
<cmath>9-3(m+n)+mn=16-4(m+n)+mn=m \implies m+n=7</cmath> | <cmath>9-3(m+n)+mn=16-4(m+n)+mn=m \implies m+n=7</cmath> |
Revision as of 21:12, 27 May 2020
Problem
Let be a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients whose coefficient is Suppose the equation has four distinct solutions, Find the sum of all possible values of
Solution 1
Either or not. We first see that if it's easy to obtain by Vieta's that . Now, take and WLOG . Now, consider the parabola formed by the graph of . It has vertex . Now, say that . We note . Now, we note by plugging in again. Now, it's easy to find that , yielding a value of . Finally, we add . ~awang11, charmander3333
Remark: We know that from .
Solution 2
Let the roots of be and , then we can write . The fact that has solutions implies that some combination of of these are the solution to , and the other are the solution to . It's fairly easy to see there are only possible such groupings: and , or and (Note that are interchangeable, and so are and ). We now casework: If , then so this gives . Next, if , then Subtracting the first part of the first equation from the first part of the second equation gives Hence, , and so . Therefore, the solution is ~ktong
Solution 3
Write . Split the problem into two cases: and .
Case 1: We have . We must have Rearrange and divide through by to obtain Now, note that Now, rearrange to get and thus Substituting this into our equation for yields . Then, it is clear that does not have a double root at , so we must have and or vice versa. This gives and or vice versa, implying that and .
Case 2: We have . Then, we must have . It is clear that (we would otherwise get implying or vice versa), so and .
Thus, our final answer is . ~GeronimoStilton
Solution 4
Let . There are two cases: in the first case, equals (without loss of generality), and thus . By Vieta's formulas .
In the second case, say without loss of generality and . Subtracting gives , so . From this, we have .
Note , so by Vieta's, we have . In this case, .
The requested sum is .~TheUltimate123
See Also
2020 AIME I (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 13 |
Followed by Problem 15 | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 | ||
All AIME Problems and Solutions |
The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions.