2019 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 10

The following problem is from both the 2019 AMC 10B #10 and 2019 AMC 12B #6, so both problems redirect to this page.

Problem

In a given plane, points $A$ and $B$ are $10$ units apart. How many points $C$ are there in the plane such that the perimeter of $\triangle ABC$ is $50$ units and the area of $\triangle ABC$ is $100$ square units?

$\textbf{(A) }0\qquad\textbf{(B) }2\qquad\textbf{(C) }4\qquad\textbf{(D) }8\qquad\textbf{(E) }\text{infinitely many}$

Solution 1

Notice that whatever point we pick for $C$, $AB$ will be the base of the triangle. Without loss of generality, let points $A$ and $B$ be $(0,0)$ and $(0,10)$, since for any other combination of points, we can just rotate the plane to make them $(0,0)$ and $(0,10)$ under a new coordinate system. When we pick point $C$, we have to make sure that its $y$-coordinate is $\pm20$, because that's the only way the area of the triangle can be $100$.

Now when the perimeter is minimized, by symmetry, we put $C$ in the middle, at $(5, 20)$. We can easily see that $AC$ and $BC$ will both be $\sqrt{20^2+5^2} = \sqrt{425}$. The perimeter of this minimal triangle is $2\sqrt{425} + 10$, which is larger than $50$. Since the minimum perimeter is greater than $50$, there is no triangle that satisfies the condition, giving us $\boxed{\textbf{(A) }0}$.

~IronicNinja

Solution 2

Without loss of generality, let $AB$ be a horizontal segment of length $10$. Now realize that $C$ has to lie on one of the lines parallel to $AB$ and vertically $20$ units away from it. But $10+20+20$ is already 50, and this doesn't form a triangle. Otherwise, without loss of generality, $AC<20$. Dropping altitude $CD$, we have a right triangle $ACD$ with hypotenuse $AC<20$ and leg $CD=20$, which is clearly impossible, again giving the answer as $\boxed{\textbf{(A) }0}$.

Solution 3

Area = $100$, perimeter = $50$, semiperimeter $s = 50/2 = 25$, $z = AB = 10$, $x = AC$ and $y = 50-10-x = 40-x$.


Using the generic formula for triangle area using semiperimeter $s$ and sides $x$, $y$, and $z$, area = $\sqrt{(s)(s-x)(s-y)(s-z)}$. (Heron's formula)

$100 = \sqrt{(25)(25-10)(25-x)(25-(40-x))} = \sqrt{(375)(25-x)(x-15)}$.


Square both sides, divide by $375$ and expand the polynomial to get $40x - x^2 - 375 = 80/3$.


$x^2 -40x + (375+80/3) = 0$ and the discriminant is $((-40)^2 - 4*1*401.\overline{6}) < 0$ so no real solutions.

Video Solution

https://youtu.be/7xf_g3YQk00

~IceMatrix

https://youtu.be/INvRdwQzC-w

~savannahsolver

See Also

2019 AMC 10B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 9
Followed by
Problem 11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions
2019 AMC 12B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 5
Followed by
Problem 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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