# 2019 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 20

The following problem is from both the 2019 AMC 10B #20 and 2019 AMC 12B #15, so both problems redirect to this page.

## Problem

As shown in the figure, line segment $\overline{AD}$ is trisected by points $B$ and $C$ so that $AB=BC=CD=2.$ Three semicircles of radius $1,$ $\overarc{AEB},\overarc{BFC},$ and $\overarc{CGD},$ have their diameters on $\overline{AD},$ and are tangent to line $EG$ at $E,F,$ and $G,$ respectively. A circle of radius $2$ has its center on $F.$ The area of the region inside the circle but outside the three semicircles, shaded in the figure, can be expressed in the form $$\frac{a}{b}\cdot\pi-\sqrt{c}+d,$$ where $a,b,c,$ and $d$ are positive integers and $a$ and $b$ are relatively prime. What is $a+b+c+d$? $[asy] size(6cm); filldraw(circle((0,0),2), grey); filldraw(arc((0,-1),1,0,180) -- cycle, gray(1.0)); filldraw(arc((-2,-1),1,0,180) -- cycle, gray(1.0)); filldraw(arc((2,-1),1,0,180) -- cycle, gray(1.0)); dot((-3,-1)); label("A",(-3,-1),S); dot((-2,0)); label("E",(-2,0),NW); dot((-1,-1)); label("B",(-1,-1),S); dot((0,0)); label("F",(0,0),N); dot((1,-1)); label("C",(1,-1), S); dot((2,0)); label("G", (2,0),NE); dot((3,-1)); label("D", (3,-1), S); [/asy]$ $\textbf{(A) } 13 \qquad\textbf{(B) } 14 \qquad\textbf{(C) } 15 \qquad\textbf{(D) } 16\qquad\textbf{(E) } 17$

## Solutions

### Solution 1

Divide the circle into four parts: the top semicircle by connecting E, F, and G( $A$); the bottom sector ( $B$), whose arc angle is $120^{\circ}$ because the large circle's radius is $2$ and the short length (the radius of the smaller semicircles) is $1$, giving a $30^{\circ}-60^{\circ}-90^{\circ}$ triangle; the triangle formed by the radii of $A$ and the chord ( $C$); and the four parts which are the corners of a circle inscribed in a square ( $D$). Then the area is $A + B - C + D$ (in $B-C$, we find the area of the bottom shaded region, and in $D$ we find the area of the shaded region above the semicircles but below the diameter).

The area of $A$ is $\frac{1}{2} \pi \cdot 2^2 = 2\pi$.

The area of $B$ is $\frac{120^{\circ}}{360^{\circ}} \pi \cdot 2^2 = \frac{4\pi}{3}$.

For the area of $C$, the radius of $2$, and the distance of $1$ (the smaller semicircles' radius) to $BC$, creates two $30^{\circ}-60^{\circ}-90^{\circ}$ triangles, so $C$'s area is $2 \cdot \frac{1}{2} \cdot 1 \cdot \sqrt{3} = \sqrt{3}$.

The area of $D$ is $4 \cdot 1-\frac{1}{4}\pi \cdot 2^2=4-\pi$.

Hence, finding $A+B-C+D$, the desired area is $\frac{7\pi}{3}-\sqrt{3}+4$, so the answer is $7+3+3+4=\boxed{\textbf{(E) } 17}$.

### Solution 2 (Video Solution but quicker and if you don't know how to find d)

Do everything in the video solution up to the part where you find the number where it is neither a fraction, radical, or number with $\pi$. With the numbers we have so far, we can deduce that $a + b + c = 16$. Using a bit of logic, and noticing that 16 is the second-largest answer, we can conclude that the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(E) }17}$ because the dimensions of a geometric figure cannot be $0$ or below.

~Ericshi1685

### Video Solution

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. 