2018 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 14

Problem

What is the greatest integer less than or equal to \[\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}?\]

$\textbf{(A) }80\qquad \textbf{(B) }81 \qquad \textbf{(C) }96 \qquad \textbf{(D) }97 \qquad \textbf{(E) }625\qquad$

Solution 1

We write \[\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}=\frac{3^{96}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}\cdot\frac{3^{100}}{3^{96}}+\frac{2^{96}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}\cdot\frac{2^{100}}{2^{96}}=\frac{3^{96}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}\cdot 81+\frac{2^{96}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}\cdot 16.\] Hence we see that our number is a weighted average of 81 and 16, extremely heavily weighted toward 81. Hence the number is ever so slightly less than 81, so the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(A) }80}$.

Solution 2

Let's set this value equal to $x$. We can write \[\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}=x.\] Multiplying by $3^{96}+2^{96}$ on both sides, we get \[3^{100}+2^{100}=x(3^{96}+2^{96}).\] Now let's take a look at the answer choices. We notice that $81$, choice $B$, can be written as $3^4$. Plugging this into our equation above, we get \[3^{100}+2^{100} \stackrel{?}{=} 3^4(3^{96}+2^{96}) \Rightarrow 3^{100}+2^{100} \stackrel{?}{=} 3^{100}+3^4\cdot 2^{96}.\] The right side is larger than the left side because \[2^{100} \leq 2^{96}\cdot 3^4.\] This means that our original value, $x$, must be less than $81$. The only answer that is less than $81$ is $80$ so our answer is $\boxed{A}$.

~Nivek, ~VERY minor spelling correction by ericshi1685

Solution 3

$\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}=\frac{2^{96}(\frac{3^{100}}{2^{96}})+2^{96}(2^{4})}{2^{96}(\frac{3}{2})^{96}+2^{96}(1)}=\frac{\frac{3^{100}}{2^{96}}+2^{4}}{(\frac{3}{2})^{96}+1}=\frac{\frac{3^{100}}{2^{100}}*2^{4}+2^{4}}{(\frac{3}{2})^{96}+1}=\frac{2^{4}(\frac{3^{100}}{2^{100}}+1)}{(\frac{3}{2})^{96}+1}$.

We can ignore the 1's on the end because they won't really affect the fraction. So, the answer is very very very close but less than the new fraction.

$\frac{2^{4}(\frac{3^{100}}{2^{100}}+1)}{(\frac{3}{2})^{96}+1}<\frac{2^{4}(\frac{3^{100}}{2^{100}})}{(\frac{3}{2})^{96}}$

$\frac{2^{4}(\frac{3^{100}}{2^{100}})}{(\frac{3}{2})^{96}}=\frac{3^{4}}{2^{4}}*2^{4}=3^{4}=81$

So, our final answer is very close but not quite 81, and therefore the greatest integer less than the number is $\boxed{(A) 80}$

Solution 4

Let $x=3^{96}$ and $y=2^{96}$. Then our fraction can be written as $\frac{81x+16y}{x+y}=\frac{16x+16y}{x+y}+\frac{65x}{x+y}=16+\frac{65x}{x+y}$. Notice that $\frac{65x}{x+y}<\frac{65x}{x}=65$. So , $16+\frac{65x}{x+y}<16+65=81$. And our only answer choice less than 81 is $\boxed{(A) 80}$ (RegularHexagon)

Solution 5

Let $x=\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}$. Multiply both sides by $(3^{96}+2^{96})$, and expand. Rearranging the terms, we get $3^{96}(3^4-x)+2^{96}(2^4-x)=0$. The left side is strictly decreasing, and it is negative when $x=81$. This means that the answer must be less than $81$; therefore the answer is $\boxed{(A)}$.

Solution 6 (eyeball it)

A faster solution. Recognize that for exponents of this size $3^{n}$ will be enormously greater than $2^{n}$, so the terms involving $2$ will actually have very little effect on the quotient. Now we know the answer will be very close to $81$.

Notice that the terms being added on to the top and bottom are in the ratio $\frac{1}{16}$ with each other, so they must pull the ratio down from 81 very slightly. (In the same way that a new test score lower than your current cumulative grade always must pull that grade downward.) Answer: $\boxed{(A)}$.

Solution 7 (Using the answer choices)

We can compare the given value to each of our answer choices. We already know that it is greater than $80$ because otherwise there would have been a smaller answer, so we move onto $81$. We get:

$\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}} \text{ ? } 3^4$

Cross multiply to get:

$3^{100}+2^{100} \text{ ? }3^{100}+(2^{96})(3^4)$

Cancel out $3^{100}$ and divide by $2^{96}$ to get $2^{4} \text{ ? }3^4$. We know that $2^4 < 3^4$, which means the expression is less than $81$ so the answer is $\boxed{(A)}$.

Solution 8 (The Slick Solution)

Notice how $\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}$ can be rewritten as $\frac{81(3^{96})+16(2^{96})}{3^{96}+2^{96}}=\frac{81(3^{96})+81(2^{96})}{3^{96}+2^{96}}-\frac{65(2^{96})}{3^{96}+2^{96}}=81-\frac{65(2^{96})}{3^{96}+2^{96}}$. Note that $\frac{65(2^{96})}{3^{96}+2^{96}}<1$, so the greatest integer less than or equal to $\frac{3^{100}+2^{100}}{3^{96}+2^{96}}$ is $80$ or $\boxed{\textbf{(A)}}$ ~blitzkrieg21

Solution 9

For positive $a, b, c, d$, if $\frac{a}{b}<\frac{c}{d}$ then $\frac{c+a}{d+b}<\frac{c}{d}$. Let $a=2^{100}, b=2^{96}, c=3^{100}, d=3^{96}$. Then $\frac{c}{d}=3^4$. So answer is less than 81, which leaves only one choice, 80.

  • Note that the algebra here is synonymous to the explanation given in Solution 5. This is the algebraic reason to the logic of if you get a test score with a lower percentage than your average (no matter how many points/percentage of your total grade it was worth), it will pull your overall grade down.

~ ccx09

Solution 10

Try long division, and notice putting $3^4=81$ as the denominator is too big and putting $3^4-1=80$ is too small. So we know that the answer is between $80$ and $81$, yielding $80$ as our answer.

Solution 11(Using the Answer Choices)

We know this will be between 16 and 81 because $\frac{3^{100}}{3^{96}} = 3^4 = 81$ and $\frac{2^{100}}{2^{96}} = 2^4 = 16$. $80=\boxed{(A)}$ is the only option choice in this range. ~Latex edits by Argonauts16

See Also

2018 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 13
Followed by
Problem 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions

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