2018 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 24

The following problem is from both the 2018 AMC 10A #24 and 2018 AMC 12A #18, so both problems redirect to this page.


Triangle $ABC$ with $AB=50$ and $AC=10$ has area $120$. Let $D$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AB}$, and let $E$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AC}$. The angle bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects $\overline{DE}$ and $\overline{BC}$ at $F$ and $G$, respectively. What is the area of quadrilateral $FDBG$?

$\textbf{(A) }60 \qquad \textbf{(B) }65 \qquad \textbf{(C) }70 \qquad \textbf{(D) }75 \qquad \textbf{(E) }80 \qquad$


2018 amc 10a 24 accurate diagram.png

Solution 1

Let $BC = a$, $BG = x$, $GC = y$, and the length of the perpendicular from $BC$ through $A$ be $h$. By angle bisector theorem, we have that \[\frac{50}{x} = \frac{10}{y},\] where $y = -x+a$. Therefore substituting we have that $BG=\frac{5a}{6}$. By similar triangles, we have that $DF=\frac{5a}{12}$, and the height of this trapezoid is $\frac{h}{2}$. Then, we have that $\frac{ah}{2}=120$. We wish to compute $\frac{5a}{8}\cdot\frac{h}{2}$, and we have that it is $\boxed{\textbf{(D) }75}$ by substituting.

Solution 2

For this problem, we have $\triangle{ADE}\sim\triangle{ABC}$ because of SAS and $DE = \frac{BC}{2}$. Therefore, $\bigtriangleup ADE$ is a quarter of the area of $\bigtriangleup ABC$, which is $30$. Subsequently, we can compute the area of quadrilateral $BDEC$ to be $120 - 30 = 90$. Using the angle bisector theorem in the same fashion as the previous problem, we get that $\overline{BG}$ is $5$ times the length of $\overline{GC}$. We want the larger piece, as described by the problem. Because the heights are identical, one area is $5$ times the other, and $\frac{5}{6} \cdot 90 = \boxed{\textbf{(D) }75}$.

Solution 3

The ratio of the $\overline{BG}$ to $\overline{GC}$ is $5:1$ by the Angle Bisector Theorem, so area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ to the area of $\bigtriangleup ACG$ is also $5:1$ (They have the same height). Therefore, the area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ is $\frac{5}{5+1}\times120=100$. Since $\overline{DE}$ is the midsegment of $\bigtriangleup ABC$, so $\overline{DF}$ is the midsegment of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ . Thus, the ratio of the area of $\bigtriangleup ADF$ to the area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ is $1:4$, so the area of $\bigtriangleup ACG$ is $\frac{1}{4}\times100=25$. Therefore, the area of quadrilateral $FDBG$ is $[ABG]-[ADF]=100-25=\boxed{\textbf{(D) }75}$

Solution 4

The area of quadrilateral $FDBG$ is the area of $\bigtriangleup ABG$ minus the area of $\bigtriangleup ADF$. Notice, $\overline{DE} || \overline{BC}$, so $\bigtriangleup ABG \sim \bigtriangleup ADF$, and since $\overline{AD}:\overline{AB}=1:2$, the area of $\bigtriangleup ADF:\bigtriangleup ABG=(1:2)^2=1:4$. Given that the area of $\bigtriangleup ABC$ is $120$, using $\frac{bh}{2}$ on side $AB$ yields $\frac{50h}{2}=120\implies h=\frac{240}{50}=\frac{24}{5}$. Using the Angle Bisector Theorem, $\overline{BG}:\overline{BC}=50:(10+50)=5:6$, so the height of $\bigtriangleup ABG: \bigtriangleup ACB=5:6$. Therefore our answer is $\big[ FDBG\big] = \big[ABG\big]-\big[ ADF\big] = \big[ ABG\big]\big(1-\frac{1}{4}\big)=\frac{3}{4}\cdot \frac{bh}{2}=\frac{3}{8}\cdot 50\cdot \frac{5}{6}\cdot \frac{24}{5}=\frac{3}{8}\cdot 200=\boxed{\textbf{(D) }75}$

Solution 5 (Trigonometry)

We try to find the area of quadrilateral $FDBG$ by subtracting the area outside the quadrilateral but inside triangle $ABC$. Note that the area of $\triangle ADE$ is equal to $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 25 \cdot 5 \cdot \sin{A}$ and the area of triangle $ABC$ is equal to $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 50 \cdot 10 \cdot \sin A$. The ratio $\frac{[ADE]}{[ABC]}$ is thus equal to $\frac{1}{4}$ and the area of triangle $ADE$ is $\frac{1}{4} \cdot 120 = 30$. Let side $BC$ be equal to $6x$, then $BG = 5x, GC = x$ by the angle bisector theorem. Similarly, we find the area of triangle $AGC$ to be $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 10 \cdot x \cdot \sin C$ and the area of triangle $ABC$ to be $\frac{1}{2} \cdot 6x \cdot 10 \cdot \sin C$. A ratio between these two triangles yields $\frac{[ACG]}{[ABC]} = \frac{x}{6x} = \frac{1}{6}$, so $[AGC] = 20$. Now we just need to find the area of triangle $AFE$ and subtract it from the combined areas of $[ADE]$ and $[ACG]$, since we count it twice. Note that the angle bisector theorem also applies for $\triangle ADE$ and $\frac{AE}{AD} = \frac{1}{5}$, so thus $\frac{EF}{ED} = \frac{1}{6}$ and we find $[AFE] = \frac{1}{6} \cdot 30 = 5$, and the area outside $FDBG$ must be $[ADE] + [AGC] - [AFE] = 30 + 20 - 5 = 45$, and we finally find $[FDBG] = [ABC] - 45 = 120 -45 = \boxed{\textbf{(D) }75}$, and we are done.


Solution 7 (Barycentrics)

Let our reference triangle be $\triangle ABC$. Consequently, we have $A=(1,0,0)$, $B=(0,1,0)$, $C=(0,0,1).$ Since $D$ is the midpoint of $\overline{AB}$, we have that $D=(1:1:0)$. Similarly, we have $E=(1:0:1).$ Hence, the line through $D$ and $E$ is given by the equation

\[0 =  \begin{vmatrix} x & y & z\\ 1 & 1 & 0\\ 1 & 0 & 1 \end{vmatrix}\]

Additionally, since all points on $\overline{AG}$ are characterized by $(t:1:5)$, we may plug in for $x,y,z$ to get $t=6$. Thus, we have $F=(6:1:5).$ Now, we homogenize the coordinates for $F D, B, G$ to get $F=(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{5}{12}, \frac{1}{12})$, $D=(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{2}, 0)$, $B=(0,1,0)$, $G=(0, \frac{1}{6}, \frac{5}{6})$

Splitting $[FBGD]$ into $[ DBG ] + [ FDG],$ we may now evaluate the two determinants:

\[\begin{vmatrix} \frac{1}{2} & \frac{1}{2} & 0\\ 0 & 1 & 0\\ 0 & \frac{1}{6} & \frac{5}{6} \end{vmatrix}\] \[\begin{vmatrix} \frac{1}{2} & \frac{1}{12} & \frac{5}{12}\\ \frac{1}{2} & \frac{1}{2} & 0\\ 0 & \frac{5}{6} & \frac{1}{6} \end{vmatrix}.\]

After simplification, we get $\frac{5}{12}$ and $\frac{5}{24}$, respectively. Summing, we get $\frac{15}{24}.$ Hence, $[FBGD]=\frac{15}{24} \cdot 120 = \fbox{\textbf{(D) }75}.$ $\sim$Math0323

Video Solution by Richard Rusczyk


~ dolphin7

Video Solution by OmegaLearn


~ pi_is_3.14

See Also

2018 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 23
Followed by
Problem 25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions
2018 AMC 12A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 17
Followed by
Problem 19
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png