# User:Rowechen

Have fun. Don't die.

## Contents

- 1 Problem 13
- 2 Problem 14
- 3 Problem 13
- 4 Problem 14
- 5 Problem 13
- 6 Problem 14
- 7 Problem 14
- 8 Problem 13
- 9 Problem 13
- 10 Problem 15
- 11 Problem 15
- 12 Problem 15
- 13 Problem 15
- 14 Problem 14
- 15 Problem 15
- 16 Problem 15
- 17 Problem 14
- 18 Problem 14
- 19 Problem 14
- 20 Problem 13
- 21 Problem 14
- 22 Problem 14
- 23 Problem 15
- 24 Problem 15
- 25 Problem 15
- 26 Problem 14
- 27 Problem 13
- 28 Problem 11
- 29 Problem 12
- 30 Problem 11
- 31 Problem 10
- 32 Problem 11
- 33 Problem 11

## Problem 13

A given sequence of distinct real numbers can be put in ascending order by means of one or more "bubble passes". A bubble pass through a given sequence consists of comparing the second term with the first term, and exchanging them if and only if the second term is smaller, then comparing the third term with the second term and exchanging them if and only if the third term is smaller, and so on in order, through comparing the last term, , with its current predecessor and exchanging them if and only if the last term is smaller.

The example below shows how the sequence 1, 9, 8, 7 is transformed into the sequence 1, 8, 7, 9 by one bubble pass. The numbers compared at each step are underlined.

Suppose that , and that the terms of the initial sequence are distinct from one another and are in random order. Let , in lowest terms, be the probability that the number that begins as will end up, after one bubble pass, in the place. Find .

## Problem 14

Given a positive integer , it can be shown that every complex number of the form , where and are integers, can be uniquely expressed in the base using the integers as digits. That is, the equation

is true for a unique choice of non-negative integer and digits chosen from the set , with . We write

to denote the base expansion of . There are only finitely many integers that have four-digit expansions

Find the sum of all such .

## Problem 13

Let be the integer closest to Find

## Problem 14

In a circle of radius 42, two chords of length 78 intersect at a point whose distance from the center is 18. The two chords divide the interior of the circle into four regions. Two of these regions are bordered by segments of unequal lengths, and the area of either of them can be expressed uniquely in the form where and are positive integers and is not divisible by the square of any prime number. Find

## Problem 13

If is a set of real numbers, indexed so that its complex power sum is defined to be where Let be the sum of the complex power sums of all nonempty subsets of Given that and where and are integers, find

## Problem 14

In triangle it is given that angles and are congruent. Points and lie on and respectively, so that Angle is times as large as angle where is a positive real number. Find the greatest integer that does not exceed .

## Problem 14

Every positive integer has a unique factorial base expansion , meaning that , where each is an integer, , and . Given that is the factorial base expansion of , find the value of .

## Problem 13

In a certain circle, the chord of a -degree arc is 22 centimeters long, and the chord of a -degree arc is 20 centimeters longer than the chord of a -degree arc, where The length of the chord of a -degree arc is centimeters, where and are positive integers. Find

## Problem 13

Let be the number of positive integers that are less than or equal to 2003 and whose base-2 representation has more 1's than 0's. Find the remainder when is divided by 1000.

## Problem 15

A long thin strip of paper is 1024 units in length, 1 unit in width, and is divided into 1024 unit squares. The paper is folded in half repeatedly. For the first fold, the right end of the paper is folded over to coincide with and lie on top of the left end. The result is a 512 by 1 strip of double thickness. Next, the right end of this strip is folded over to coincide with and lie on top of the left end, resulting in a 256 by 1 strip of quadruple thickness. This process is repeated 8 more times. After the last fold, the strip has become a stack of 1024 unit squares. How many of these squares lie below the square that was originally the 942nd square counting from the left?

## Problem 15

Let and denote the circles and respectively. Let be the smallest positive value of for which the line contains the center of a circle that is externally tangent to and internally tangent to Given that where and are relatively prime integers, find

## Problem 15

In with , , and , let be a point on such that the incircles of and have equal radii. Let and be positive relatively prime integers such that . Find .

## Problem 15

In triangle , , , and . Points and lie on with and . Points and lie on with and . Let be the point, other than , of intersection of the circumcircles of and . Ray meets at . The ratio can be written in the form , where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find .

## Problem 14

Let be a regular octagon. Let , , , and be the midpoints of sides , , , and , respectively. For , ray is constructed from towards the interior of the octagon such that , , , and . Pairs of rays and , and , and , and and meet at , , , respectively. If , then can be written in the form , where and are positive integers. Find .

## Problem 15

For some integer , the polynomial has the three integer roots , , and . Find .

## Problem 15

Let be the number of ordered triples of integers satisfying the conditions (a) , (b) there exist integers , , and , and prime where , (c) divides , , and , and (d) each ordered triple and each ordered triple form arithmetic sequences. Find .

## Problem 14

For positive integers and , let be the remainder when is divided by , and for let . Find the remainder when is divided by .

## Problem 14

In a group of nine people each person shakes hands with exactly two of the other people from the group. Let be the number of ways this handshaking can occur. Consider two handshaking arrangements different if and only if at least two people who shake hands under one arrangement do not shake hands under the other arrangement. Find the remainder when is divided by .

## Problem 14

For each integer , let be the area of the region in the coordinate plane defined by the inequalities and , where is the greatest integer not exceeding . Find the number of values of with for which is an integer.

## Problem 13

Let have side lengths , , and . Point lies in the interior of , and points and are the incenters of and , respectively. Find the minimum possible area of as varies along .

## Problem 14

The sequence satisfies and for . Find the greatest integer less than or equal to .

## Problem 14

The incircle of triangle is tangent to at . Let be the other intersection of with . Points and lie on and , respectively, so that is tangent to at . Assume that , , , and , where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find .

## Problem 15

David found four sticks of different lengths that can be used to form three non-congruent convex cyclic quadrilaterals, , which can each be inscribed in a circle with radius . Let denote the measure of the acute angle made by the diagonals of quadrilateral , and define and similarly. Suppose that , , and . All three quadrilaterals have the same area , which can be written in the form , where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find .

## Problem 15

Circles and intersect at points and . Line is tangent to and at and , respectively, with line closer to point than to . Circle passes through and intersecting again at and intersecting again at . The three points , , are collinear, , , and . Find .

## Problem 15

Let be an acute triangle with circumcircle and let be the intersection of the altitudes of Suppose the tangent to the circumcircle of at intersects at points and with and The area of can be written as where and are positive integers, and is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find

## Problem 14

Let be a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients whose coefficient is Suppose the equation has four distinct solutions, Find the sum of all possible values of

## Problem 13

How many integers less than 1000 can be written as the sum of consecutive positive odd integers from exactly 5 values of ?

## Problem 11

Define a *T-grid* to be a matrix which satisfies the following two properties:

- Exactly five of the entries are 's, and the remaining four entries are 's.
- Among the eight rows, columns, and long diagonals (the long diagonals are and , no more than one of the eight has all three entries equal.

Find the number of distinct *T-grids*.

## Problem 12

Six men and some number of women stand in a line in random order. Let be the probability that a group of at least four men stand together in the line, given that every man stands next to at least one other man. Find the least number of women in the line such that does not exceed 1 percent.

## Problem 11

Consider arrangements of the numbers in a array. For each such arrangement, let , , and be the medians of the numbers in rows , , and respectively, and let be the median of . Let be the number of arrangements for which . Find the remainder when is divided by .

## Problem 10

Find the number of functions from to that satisfy for all in .

## Problem 11

For integers and let and Find the number of ordered triples of integers with absolute values not exceeding for which there is an integer such that

## Problem 11

A sequence is defined as follows and, for all positive integers Given that and find the remainder when is divided by 1000.